Mineralocorticoids and Cardiovascular Disease in Females with Insulin Resistance and Obesity
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Purpose of the Review
In the present review, we will discuss the evidence and the mechanisms underlying the complex interplay between obesity, mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and cardiovascular dysfunction with special emphasis on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in obese and insulin-resistant females.
Since the initial isolation of aldosterone in 1953 and the cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) decades later, our understanding has expanded tremendously regarding their involvement in the pathogenesis of CVD. Recent results from both pre-clinical and clinical studies support a close correlation between increase adiposity and enhanced aldosterone production (MR activation).
Importantly, insulin resistance and obese females are more prone to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of MR activation, and enhanced MR activation in females has emerged as an important causative event in the genesis of a more severe CVD in diabetic women. Different clinical trials have been completed examining the effect of MR blockade in subjects with CVD. Despite its important beneficial mortality impact, side effects are frequent and a newer MR antagonist, finerenone, with less risk of hyperkalemia is currently being tested in large clinical trials.
KeywordsObesity Females Cardiovascular disease Aldosterone Mineralocorticoid receptor
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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