The Effects of Oral Taurine on Resting Blood Pressure in Humans: a Meta-Analysis
Purpose of Review
The aims of this meta-analysis were to investigate the effects of orally administered isolated taurine on resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in humans.
There is growing evidence that taurine deficiency is associated with hypertension and that oral supplementation can have antihypertensive effects in humans. However, these investigations have been conducted across a number of decades and populations and have not been collectively reviewed. A search was performed using various databases in May 2018 and later screened using search criteria for eligibility. There were seven peer-reviewed studies meeting the inclusion criteria, encompassing 103 participants of varying age and health statuses. Taurine ingestion reduced SBP (Hedges’ g = − 0.70, 95% CI − 0.98 to − 0.41, P < 0.0001) and DBP (Hedges’ g = − 0.62, 95% CI − 0.91 to − 0.34, P < 0.0001). These results translated to mean ~ 3 mmHg reductions in both SBP (range = 0–15 mmHg) and DBP (range = 0–7 mmHg) following a range of doses (1 to 6 g/day) and supplementation periods (1 day to 12 weeks), with no adverse events reported.
These preliminary findings suggest that ingestion of taurine at the stated doses and supplementation periods can reduce blood pressure to a clinically relevant magnitude, without any adverse side effects. Future studies are needed to establish the effects of oral taurine supplementation on targeted pathologies and the optimal supplementation doses and periods.
KeywordsHypertension Taurine deficiency Oral taurine
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance•• Of major Importance
- 1.WHO Raised blood pressure: situation and trends. Global Health Observatory. http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/blood_pressure_prevalence_text/en/ (accessed 04 May 2018).
- 18.•• Sagara M, Murakami S, Mizushima S, et al. Taurine in 24-h urine samples is inversely related to cardiovascular risks of middle aged subjects in 50 populations of the world. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;803:623–36. This multi-centre, cross-sectional study of > 4,000 patients demonstrated an inverse relationship between 24-h urinary taurine/creatinine ratios and both hypertension and obesity, highlighting the links between taurine deficiency and cardiovascular disease risk. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Lipsey MW, Wilson DB. Practical meta-analysis. London: Sage; 2001.Google Scholar
- 22.Rosenthal R, Rosnow RL. Essentials of behavioral research: methods and data analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1984.Google Scholar
- 28.Warnock R, Jeffries O, Patterson S, Waldron M. The effects of caffeine, taurine or caffeine-taurine co-ingestion on repeat-sprint cycling performance and physiological responses. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2017;24:1–24.Google Scholar
- 30.• Sun Q, Wang B, Li Y, et al. Taurine supplementation lowers blood pressure and improves vascular function in prehypertension: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Hypertension. 2016;67:541–9. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that oral taurine supplementation lowered blood pressure in a large cohort ( n = 120) of pre-hypertensive participants and provided the first mechanistic understanding of taurine’s effects on the vasculature. PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Zhao D, Liu H, Dong P. A meta-analysis of antihypertensive effect of telmisartan versus candesartan in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2018;28:1–5.Google Scholar
- 35.Peck RN, Smart LR, Beier R, Liwa AC, Grosskurth H, Fitzgerald DW, et al. Difference in blood pressure response to ACE-inhibitor monotherapy between black and white adults with arterial hypertension: a meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:201.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar