A Review of the Genetics of Hypertension with a Focus on Gene-Environment Interactions
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Purpose of Review
Here, we discuss the interpretation and modeling of gene-environment interactions in hypertension-related phenotypes, with a focus on the necessary assumptions and possible challenges.
Recently, small cohort studies have discovered several novel genetic variants associated with hypertension-related phenotypes through modeling gene-environment interactions. Several consortia-based meta-analytic efforts have uncovered many novel genetic variants in hypertension without modeling interaction terms, giving promise to future meta-analytic efforts that incorporate gene-environment interactions.
Heritability studies and genome-wide association studies have established that hypertension, a prevalent cardiovascular disease, has a genetic component that may be modulated by the environment (such as lifestyle factors). This review includes a discussion of known genetic associations for hypertension/blood pressure, including those resulting from the incorporation of gene-environmental interaction modeling.
KeywordsGenetics of hypertension Gene-environment Phenotypes Cardiovascular disease
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Drs. Waken1, de las Fuentes, and Rao declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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