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PPARγ Regulation in Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

  • Madeliene Stump
  • Masashi Mukohda
  • Chunyan Hu
  • Curt D. Sigmund
Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome (J Sperati, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract

Dysregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity leads to significant alterations in cardiovascular and metabolic regulation. This is most keenly observed by the metabolic syndrome-like phenotypes exhibited by patients carrying mutations in PPARγ. We will summarize recent findings regarding mechanisms of PPARγ regulation in the cardiovascular and nervous systems focusing largely on PPARγ in the smooth muscle, endothelium, and brain. Canonically, PPARγ exerts its effects by regulating the expression of target genes in these cells, and we will discuss mechanisms by which PPARγ targets in the vasculature regulate cardiovascular function. We will also discuss emerging evidence that PPARγ in the brain is a mediator of appetite and obesity. Finally, we will briefly review how novel PPARγ activators control posttranslational modifications of PPARγ and their prospects to offer new therapeutic options for treatment of metabolic diseases without the adverse side effects of thiazolidinediones which strongly activate transcriptional activity of PPARγ.

Keywords

PPARγ Ubiquitin ligase Vascular function Brain Posttranslational modifications 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Pimonrat Ketsawatsomkron, PhD, and Henry L. Keen, PhD, for their insightful review of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Drs. Stump, Mukohda, Hu, and Sigmund declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Disclosure of Funding

The National Institutes of Health (NIH), American Heart Association, and Roy J. Carver Trust funded this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madeliene Stump
    • 1
    • 2
  • Masashi Mukohda
    • 3
  • Chunyan Hu
    • 3
  • Curt D. Sigmund
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Medical Scientist Training Program, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology and Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  4. 4.UIHC Center for Hypertension Research, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of MedicineUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

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