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Clinical Significance of Endothelial Dysfunction in Essential Hypertension

  • Eugenia Gkaliagkousi
  • Eleni Gavriilaki
  • Areti Triantafyllou
  • Stella Douma
Pathogenesis of Hypertension (W Elliott, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pathogenesis of Hypertension

Abstract

The endothelium is recognized as a major determinant of vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Over the last few decades, a plethora of studies have implicated endothelial dysfunction in the progression of atherosclerosis and the subclinical target organ damage observed in essential hypertension. However, the clinical significance of diagnosing endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension remains under investigation. Although a number of vascular and non-vascular markers of endothelial dysfunction have been proposed, there is an ongoing quest for a marker in the clinical setting that is optimal, inexpensive, and reproducible. In addition, endothelial dysfunction emerges as a promising therapeutic target of agents that are readily available in clinical practice. In this context, a better understanding of its role in essential hypertension becomes of great importance. Here, we aim to investigate the clinical significance of endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension by accumulating novel data on (a) early diagnosis using robust markers with prognostic value in cardiovascular risk prediction, (b) the association of endothelial dysfunction with subclinical vascular organ damage, and (c) potential therapeutic targets.

Keywords

Endothelial dysfunction ADMA FMD Treatment Essential hypertension 

Abbreviations

NO

Nitric oxide

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

CaM

Calmodulin

BH4

Tetrahydrobiopterin

ADMA

Asymmetrical dimethylarginine

MPAs

Monocyte-platelet aggregates

BP

Blood pressure

EMPs

Endothelial microparticles

EPCs

Endothelial progenitor cells

QCA

Quantitative coronary angiography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PET

Positron emission tomography

FBF

Forearm blood flow

VOP

Venous occlusion plethysmography

FMD

Flow-mediated dilation

PAT

Peripheral arterial tonometry

LDF

Laser Doppler flowmetry

PWV

Pulse wave velocity

RAS

Renin-angiotensin system

ACEs

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

ARBs

Angiotensin receptor blockers

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Drs. Gkaliagkousi, Gavriilaki, Triantafyllou, and Douma declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugenia Gkaliagkousi
    • 1
  • Eleni Gavriilaki
    • 1
  • Areti Triantafyllou
    • 1
  • Stella Douma
    • 1
  1. 1.3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Papageorgiou HospitalAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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