Hypothalamic Signaling Mechanisms in Hypertension
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The etiology of hypertension, a critical public health issue affecting one in three US adults, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system. Increased activation of the central nervous system, driving enhanced sympathetic outflow and increased blood pressure, has emerged as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The hypothalamus is a key brain site acting to integrate central and peripheral inputs to ultimately impact blood pressure in multiple disease states that evoke hypertension. This review highlights recent advances that have identified novel signal transduction mechanisms within multiple hypothalamic nuclei (e.g., paraventricular nucleus, arcuate nucleus) acting to drive the pathophysiology of hypertension in neurogenic hypertension, angiotensin II hypertension, salt-sensitive hypertension, chronic intermittent hypoxia, and obesity-induced hypertension. Increased understanding of hypothalamic activity in hypertension has the potential to identify novel targets for future therapeutic interventions designed to treat hypertension.
KeywordsHypothalamus Hypertension Signal transduction Paraventricular nucleus Arcuate nucleus Hypertension Autonomic control
This work was supported by NIH grants R01HL107330 and K02HL112718 to RDW.
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Conflict of Interest Casey Y. Carmichael and Richard D. Wainford declare no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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