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Current Hypertension Reports

, 16:498 | Cite as

Recent Insights on Circulating Catecholamines in Hypertension

  • Quang V. TonEmail author
  • Stephen R. HammesEmail author
Secondary Hypertension: Nervous System Mechanisms (J Bisognano, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Secondary Hypertension: Nervous System Mechanisms

Abstract

Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors that commonly lead to excess catecholamine secretion, resulting in elevated blood pressure. In addition to potentiating vasoconstriction, catecholamines promote endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by elevated markers of endothelial dysfunction, ADMA and sVCAM-1, in patients with pheochromcytoma. Importantly, catecholamine-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension may not only be due to catecholamine production by neuroendocrine tumors, as vascular endothelial cells have now been demonstrated to synthesize and secrete catecholamines. This local vascular catecholamine release appears to be triggered by hypoxia. In fact, chronic intermittent hypoxia both in vitro and in vivo leads to stabilization of hypoxic-inducible factors that increase gene expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. In an effort to target catecholamines as a means of treating hypertension, novel therapeutic options are being explored, including the generation of pharmacophores that mimic the suppressive effects of catestatin on catecholamine release as well as the use of renalase enhancers to increase catecholamine metabolism.

Keywords

Catecholamines Hypertension Endothelium Hypoxia Apnea Hypoxia-inducible factor Pheochromocytoma Metanephrines Chromogranin A Catestatin Renalase 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Quang V. Ton and Stephen R. Hammes declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and MetabolismUniversity of Rochester School of Medicine and DentistryRochesterUSA

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