Vitamin D Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Hypertension: Still an Unsettled Question

  • Stephen G. RostandEmail author
Prevention of Hypertension: Public Health Challenges (P Muntner, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Prevention of Hypertension: Public Health Challenges


Vitamin D deficiency is inversely associated with blood pressure and is felt to contribute to the genesis and maintenance of hypertension. Although well demonstrated in animal studies, in many clinical studies the association between vitamin D status and blood pressure has not been consistently observed or else has been quite small. These discrepancies may relate in part to methodological differences including: patient selection, study size and duration, and, in the case of vitamin D repletion studies, differences in the vitamin D supplement used, its dose, and dosing intervals. Polymorphisms in genes regulating vitamin D activation and function may explain some of the observed inconsistencies as suggested by recent studies. The present review examines experimental and clinical studies bearing on the inverse association between blood pressure and vitamin D status and concludes that a new definition of vitamin D deficiency using additional biomarkers may better select patients with hypertension who will respond to vitamin D supplementation.


Vitamin D Blood pressure Hypertension Ultraviolet light Hypovitaminosis D Cholecalciferol Calcitriol Parathyroid hormone Vitamin D-binding protein Vitamin D receptor FGF23 



The author would like to thank Tilman Drueke, MD for his helpful comments and suggestions.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Stephen G. Rostand declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Nephrology Research and Training Center, Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineThe University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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