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The Role of Adiponectin in Endothelial Dysfunction and Hypertension

  • Edward RojasEmail author
  • Daloha Rodríguez-Molina
  • Peter Bolli
  • Zafar H. Israili
  • Judith Faría
  • Enzamaría Fidilio
  • Valmore Bermúdez
  • Manuel Velasco
Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome (JR Sowers and AT Whaley-Connell, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

Abstract

It has been two decades since the discovery of adiponectin, and today its role in insulin resistance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are areas of major interest. Production of adiponectin is reduced in all inflammatory processes and states of insulin resistance such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Adiponectin regulates carbohydrate metabolism, and may also regulate vascular homeostasis by affecting important signaling pathways in endothelial cells and modulating inflammatory responses in the subendothelial space. Clinical studies have demonstrated a relationship between serum adiponectin concentrations and the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), causing changes in blood pressure. Antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) has been demonstrated to increase adiponectin levels in 3-6 months. Adiponectin has also been shown to play a role in cardiac injury in modulation of pro-survival reactions, cardiac energy metabolism, and inhibition of hypertrophic remodeling. The effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are believed to be partially mediated by the activation of 5’ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways, reducing endothelial cell apoptosis, promoting nitric oxide production, decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) activity, and preventing atherosclerotic proliferation and smooth muscle cell migration. Further evaluation of biologically active forms of adiponectin and its receptor should help to clarify how obesity affects the cardiovascular system.

Keywords

Adiponectin Obesity Hypertension Nitric oxide Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Endothelial dysfuction 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest Edward Rojas, Daloha Rodríguez-Molina, Peter Bolli, Zafar H. Israili, Judith Faría, Enzamaría Fidilio, Valmore Bermúdez, and Manuel Velasco each declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Rojas
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  • Daloha Rodríguez-Molina
    • 1
  • Peter Bolli
    • 2
  • Zafar H. Israili
    • 3
  • Judith Faría
    • 1
  • Enzamaría Fidilio
    • 4
  • Valmore Bermúdez
    • 1
  • Manuel Velasco
    • 5
  1. 1.Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Research Center “Dr. Félix Gómez”University of ZuliaMaracaiboVenezuela
  2. 2.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Military Hospital of MaracaiboMaracaiboVenezuela
  5. 5.Clinical Pharmacology Unit of José María Vargas School of MedicineCentral University of VenezuelaCaracasVenezuela
  6. 6.Faculty of MedicineLa Universidad del Zulia (LUZ)MaracaiboVenezuela

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