Glutathione-S-Transferase M1 and T1 Null Genotypes Are Associated with Hypertension Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 12 Studies

  • Saeid Eslami
  • Amirhossein SahebkarEmail author


Oxidative stress is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes are key components of cellular defense against oxidative stress. The present study aimed to clarify the association between polymorphisms in GST and risk of essential hypertension using a meta-analysis of published studies. PubMed-Medline, Ovid-EMBASE, HuGE Navigator and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify case-control studies that examined the association of GST polymorphisms and hypertension. Data were extracted using standardized methods. Combined odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association of polymorphisms with hypertension were calculated using a fixed effect approach and under dominant, recessive, additive and overdominant models of inheritance. A total of 12 studies comprising 2,040 cases and 2,462 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria. GSTM1 (presence/null), GSTT1 (presence/null) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val; rs1695) polymorphisms were evaluated. Meta-analysis revealed significant associations between the null genotypes of GSTM1 (OR: 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.08–1.39; p = 0.002) and GSTT1 (OR: 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.13–1.50; p = 0.0003) and risk of hypertension. The observed associations were robust in sensitivity analyses. However, no significant association was found for the rs1695 polymorphism under all assessed modes of inheritance. Findings of the present meta-analysis demonstrated that GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes may serve as predisposing factors for essential hypertension. Further studies are warranted to validate this association, and also to explore if these null genotypes are in linkage with other hypertension susceptibility polymorphisms.


Cardiovascular disease Blood pressure Systematic review Pooled analysis Glutathione 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Saeid Eslami and Amirhossein Sahebkar declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Research Center, School of PharmacyMashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Medical InformaticsAcademic Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Biotechnology Research CenterDepartment of Medical Biotechnology, Mashhad University of Medical SciencesMashhadIran

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