Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 71–79 | Cite as

The “His and Hers” of the Renin-Angiotensin System

  • Lucinda M. Hilliard
  • Amanda K. Sampson
  • Russell D. Brown
  • Kate M. DentonEmail author
Hypertension and the Kidney (RM Carey and A Mimran, Section Editors)


Sex differences exist in the regulation of arterial pressure and renal function by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This may in part stem from a differential balance in the pressor and depressor arms of the RAS. In males, the ACE/AngII/AT1R pathways are enhanced, whereas, in females, the balance is shifted towards the ACE2/Ang(1-7)/MasR and AT2R pathways. Evidence clearly demonstrates that premenopausal women, as compared to aged-matched men, are protected from renal and cardiovascular disease, and this differential balance of the RAS between the sexes likely contributes. With aging, this cardiovascular protection in women is lost and this may be related to loss of estrogen postmenopause but the possible contribution of other sex hormones needs to be further examined. Restoration of these RAS depressor pathways in older women, or up-regulation of these in males, represents a therapeutic target that is worth pursuing.


Sex differences Arterial blood pressure Kidney function Cardiovascular disease Angiotensin II Angiotensin (1-7) Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 Mas receptor Angiotensin type 2 receptor Depressor arm of the RAS Sex hormones Sex chromosomes Hypertension 



L.M. Hilliard: none; A.K. Sampson: none; R.D. Brown: none; K.M. Denton: research funding from National Health and Medical Research Council.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucinda M. Hilliard
    • 1
  • Amanda K. Sampson
    • 2
  • Russell D. Brown
    • 1
  • Kate M. Denton
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.BakerIDIMelbourneAustralia

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