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Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 442–448 | Cite as

Sleep, Slow-Wave Sleep, and Blood Pressure

  • Sogol Javaheri
  • Susan Redline
Antihypertensive Therapy: Renal Injury (MR Weir and GL Bakris, Section Editors)

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that alterations in sleep continuity due to central nervous system arousal and/or reductions in deeper stages of sleep adversely affect blood pressure and contribute to hypertension. Disturbed sleep also blunts the normal nocturnal dip in blood pressure and may lead to sustained daytime hypertension as well. Nocturnal drops in blood pressure result from increased parasympathetic and reduced sympathetic activity during sleep. Slow-wave sleep, considered to be the most “restorative,” is the specific sleep state associated with the largest decline in sympathetic activity. The time in slow-wave sleep declines with age as well as in association with other health problems. A reduction in the time in slow-wave sleep has recently been reported to predict increased incident hypertension. The mechanisms by which this occurs have not been well described but may include alterations in dipping patterns, sympathetic nervous system activity, corticotrophin pathways, and the renin–angiotensin system. This article reviews the overall association between sleep and hypertension, with a specific focus on slow-wave sleep, a possible novel target for future blood pressure interventions.

Keywords

Hypertension Blood pressure Sleep architecture Sleep disorders Sleep quality Slow-wave sleep Deep sleep Sleep duration Sleep-disordered breathing Body fat Body mass index Dipping Nondipping Restorative sleep Blood pressure interventions 

Notes

Disclosure

S. Redline received research support from ResMed and Philips Respironics.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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