Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 279–284 | Cite as

Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

  • Isabella Sudano
  • Andreas J. Flammer
  • Susanne Roas
  • Frank Enseleit
  • Frank Ruschitzka
  • Roberto Corti
  • Georg Noll
Invited Commentary


The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.


Cocoa Flavonols Polyphenols Antioxidants Endothelial function Blood pressure Nitric oxide NO Vascular compliance Coronary heart disease Stroke 



Work of the authors was partly supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant Nr. 32000BO-109905/1 to R.C.) The authors received an unrestricted research grant by Nestlé.


No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


Recently published papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of outstanding importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isabella Sudano
    • 1
  • Andreas J. Flammer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susanne Roas
    • 1
  • Frank Enseleit
    • 1
  • Frank Ruschitzka
    • 1
    • 3
  • Roberto Corti
    • 1
    • 3
  • Georg Noll
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Center CardiologyUniversity Hospital ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineMayo Clinic and College of MedicineRochesterUSA
  3. 3.Center for Integrative Human PhysiologyUniversity ZurichZurichSwitzerland

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