Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 333–338

Total Cardiovascular Risk, Blood Pressure Variability and Adrenergic Overdrive in Hypertension: Evidence, Mechanisms and Clinical Implications

  • Guido Grassi
  • Michele Bombelli
  • Gianmaria Brambilla
  • Fosca Quarti Trevano
  • Raffaella Dell’Oro
  • Giuseppe Mancia
The Therapeutic Trials (G Mancia and TD Giles, Section Editors)


In hypertensive patients the risk of developing cardiovascular events and complications depends not only on the magnitude of the blood pressure elevation, but also, and to a consistent extent, on the presence of associated cardiovascular risk factors, concomitant disease and target organ damage. Recent findings suggest that also sympathetic overdrive and alterations in blood pressure variability (which are detected in hypertension) may participate at the increased cardiovascular risk of the patients with high blood pressure. This review will discuss the evidence collected over the past few years on the relationships between sympathetic activation and blood pressure variability and their impact on cardiovascular risk profile.


Cardiovascular risk Hypertension Sympathetic nervous system Blood pressure variability Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring Cardiovascular risk factors 


Papers of interest have been highlighted as • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guido Grassi
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michele Bombelli
    • 1
  • Gianmaria Brambilla
    • 1
  • Fosca Quarti Trevano
    • 1
  • Raffaella Dell’Oro
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Mancia
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinica Medica, Ospedale San Gerardo dei Tintori MonzaUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Scientifico MultimedicaSesto San GiovanniMilanItaly
  3. 3.Clinica Medica, Ospedale S GerardoMonzaItaly

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