Advertisement

Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 127–132 | Cite as

Ethnic, gender, and age-related differences in patients with the metabolic syndrome

  • Louai Razzouk
  • Paul MuntnerEmail author
Article

Abstract

The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated differences in prevalence by age, gender, and ethnicity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increases with age through the sixth decade of life among men and seventh decade among women. Most, but not all, studies reported a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among women compared with men. Although the metabolic syndrome is more common among Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic whites and blacks, among men the metabolic syndrome is more common among non-Hispanic whites than non-Hispanic blacks; the reverse is true among women. Understanding the basic pathophysiology underlying the metabolic syndrome may help explain the age, gender, and ethnic differences in its prevalence and guide preventive and therapeutic efforts.

Keywords

Metabolic Syndrome Abdominal Obesity National Cholesterol Education Program International Diabetes Federation Adult Treatment Panel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III): Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002, 106:3143–3421.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M: The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005, 28:2289–2304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ: Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998, 15:539–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roden M: [Diabetes mellitus—definition, classification and diagnosis]. Acta Med Austriaca 2004, 31:156–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2002, 287:356–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH: Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults. Diabetes Care 2004, 27:2444–2449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grundy SM: Metabolic syndrome pandemic. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008, 28:629–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reynolds K, He J: Epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome. Am J Med Sci 2005, 330:273–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen J, Muntner P, Hamm LL, et al.: The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in US adults. Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:167–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Galassi A, Reynolds K, He J: Metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2006, 119:812–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Lennon L, Morris RW: Metabolic syndrome vs Framingham Risk Score for prediction of coronary heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 2005, 165:2644–2650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kraja AT, Borecki IB, North K, et al.: Longitudinal and age trends of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors: the Family Heart Study. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2006, 3:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ford ES, Li C, Imperatore G, Cook S: Age, sex, and ethnic variations in serum insulin concentrations among US youth: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Diabetes Care 2006, 29:2605–2611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, et al.: The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med 2003, 163:427–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sanisoglu SY, Oktenli C, Hasimi A, et al.: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey. BMC Public Health 2006, 6:92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hildrum B, Mykletun A, Hole T, et al.: Age-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome defined by the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program: the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. BMC Public Health 2007, 7:220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Frontini MG, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS: Longitudinal changes in risk variables underlying metabolic Syndrome X from childhood to young adulthood in female subjects with a history of early menarche: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003, 27:1398–1404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al.: Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005, 112:2735–2752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 1980, 62(4 Pt 2):IV1–IV136.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chiu KC, Lee NP, Cohan P, Chuang LM: Beta cell function declines with age in glucose tolerant Caucasians. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000, 53:569–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ford ES: The metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study. Atherosclerosis 2004, 173:309–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malik S, Wong ND, Franklin SS, et al.: Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. Circulation 2004, 110:1245–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mozaffarian D, Kamineni A, Prineas RJ, Siscovick DS: Metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2008, 168:969–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G: The metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease in older women: findings from the British Women’s Heart and Health Study. Diabet Med 2004, 21:906–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferrara A: Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a public health perspective. Diabetes Care 2007, 30(Suppl 2):S141–S146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mosca L, Ferris A, Fabunmi R, Robertson RM: Tracking women’s awareness of heart disease: an American Heart Association national study. Circulation 2004, 109:573–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL: Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002, 288:1723–1727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ford ES, Zhao G, Li C, et al.: Trends in obesity and abdominal obesity among hypertensive and nonhypertensive adults in the United States. Am J Hypertens 2008, 21:1124–1128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gu D, Reynolds K, Wu X, et al.: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight among adults in China. Lancet 2005, 365:1398–1405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Assmann G, Guerra R, Fox G, et al.: Harmonizing the definition of the metabolic syndrome: comparison of the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III and the International Diabetes Federation in United States American and European populations. Am J Cardiol 2007, 99:541–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Matthews KA, Meilahn E, Kuller LH, et al.: Menopause and risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1989, 321:641–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE, et al.: Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007, 49:403–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tan CE, Ma S, Wai D, et al.: Can we apply the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel definition of the metabolic syndrome to Asians? Diabetes Care 2004, 27:1182–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J: The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005, 366:1059–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee ET, Welty TK, Fabsitz R, et al.: The Strong Heart Study. A study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians: design and methods. Am J Epidemiol 1990, 132:1141–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Berlie HD, Herman WH, Brown MB, et al.: Quality of diabetes care in Arab Americans. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008, 79:249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jain T, Peshock R, McGuire DK, et al.: African Americans and Caucasians have a similar prevalence of coronary calcium in the Dallas Heart Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004, 44:1011–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vega GL, Adams-Huet B, Peshock R, et al.: Influence of body fat content and distribution on variation in metabolic risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006, 91:4459–4466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Haffner SM, D’Agostino R, Saad MF, et al.: Increased insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic African-Americans and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes 1996, 45:742–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Laclaustra M, Corella D, Ordovas JM: Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007, 17:125–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community and Preventive MedicineMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations