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Current Hypertension Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 48–55 | Cite as

Vascular insulin resistance: A potential link between cardiovascular and metabolic diseases

  • Ivonne Hernandez Schulman
  • Ming-Sheng Zhou
Article

Abstract

The physiologic actions of insulin in the vasculature serve to couple regulation of metabolic and hemodynamic homeostasis. Insulin activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway promotes glucose uptake in insulin-responsive tissues and nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelium. NO induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell growth. In contrast, insulin activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) leads to vasoconstriction and pathologic vascular cellular growth. In states of insulin resistance, insulin activation of PI3K is selectively impaired, whereas the MAPK pathway is spared and activated normally. In the endothelium, selective impairment of insulin-mediated NO production may contribute to the development of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, and insulin resistance. This article reviews experimental and clinical data elucidating the physiologic and pathophysiologic role of insulin in the vasculature and the mechanisms contributing to the development of vascular and metabolic diseases.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Insulin Resistance PI3K Pathway Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vascular Biology InstituteUniversity of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nephrology-Hypertension SectionMiamiUSA

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