Leptin: Linking obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease

  • Sanjeev B. Patel
  • Garry P. Reams
  • Robert M. Spear
  • Ronald H. Freeman
  • Daniel VillarrealEmail author


The incidence and prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome have risen markedly in the past decade, representing a serious cardiovascular health hazard with significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome and its various pathogenic mechanisms are incompletely defined and under intense investigation. Contemporary research suggests that the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin may be an important factor linking obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders. Although recent evidence indicates that under normal conditions leptin may be an important factor in regulating pressure and volume, during situations of chronic hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance, this hormone may function pathophysiologically for the development of hypertension and cardiac and renal diseases. Future research will determine if reduction of circulating leptin and/or blockade of its peripheral actions can confer cardiovascular and renal protection in hyperleptinemic patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.


Nitric Oxide Metabolic Syndrome Sympathetic Nervous System Sodium Excretion Urinary Sodium Excretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjeev B. Patel
  • Garry P. Reams
  • Robert M. Spear
  • Ronald H. Freeman
  • Daniel Villarreal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of CardiologySUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA

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