The metabolic syndrome in hypertension: Diagnostic and therapeutic implications
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Arterial hypertension is often part of a larger constellation of anthropometric and metabolic abnormalities that includes abdominal (or visceral) obesity, characteristic dyslipidemia (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels), glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hyperuricemia. Using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, prevalence is higher than in the general population and the metabolic syndrome can be found in as many as one third of patients. Among hypertensives with metabolic syndrome, a high prevalence of hypertension-induced target-organ damage and a poor prognostic value has been described. Dietary advice and lifestyle changes should be strongly recommended and prompt pharmacologic treatment is required to control high blood pressure and to reduce risk. The impact of particular antihypertensive drugs on other components of the metabolic syndrome is an important clinical issue with consequences for the success of treatment.