Does ALLHAT change the management of hypertension in chronic kidney disease?
ALLHAT was designed to test the hypothesis that “newer” antihypertensive agents are superior to a thiazide diuretic for cardiovascular outcomes. Pre-specified secondary outcomes included the development of endstage renal disease (ESRD) (dialysis, renal transplantation, or death from renal cause) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). ALLHAT showed no differences in the overall rates of ESRD between those randomized to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, or lisinopril. It showed a slower rate of decline of GFR among those randomized to amlodipine in both diabetics and nondiabetics, and in the composite end point (ESRD or ≥ 50% decline in GFR) in nondiabetics. The results of ALLHAT are consistent with other studies that, for the patient population studied (presumably largely nonalbuminuric patients with and without diabetes), at systolic BP < 130 mm Hg, there is no difference for renal outcomes between a thiazide diuretic, dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, and ACEI-initiated treatment for 5 to 6 years of follow-up. These results suggest that BP control per se remains the most important objective for this patient population.
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