Screening for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in HIV-Infected Patients: Current Evidence and Controversies

  • N. Merchante
  • M. Rodríguez-Fernández
  • J. A. PinedaEmail author
Co-infections and Comorbidity (S Naggie, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Co-infections and Comorbidity
  2. Topical Collection on Co-infections and Comorbidity


Purpose of Review

This review aims to summarize evidence regarding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening in the specific context of HIV infection and discuss areas of uncertainty.

Recent Findings

It has not been definitely established if HCC incidence in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with cirrhosis is above the 1.5%/year threshold that makes screening cost-effective. Outside cirrhosis or HBV infection, available data do not support surveillance. The performance of currently recommended ultrasound (US) screening strategy is poor in HIV-infected patients, as rates of early-stage HCC detection are low. Magnetic resonance imaging–based surveillance strategies or liquid biopsy are innovative approaches that should be specifically tested in this setting.


HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis are at risk of HCC. US surveillance identifies patients with early-stage HCC who will benefit of curative therapies, although the quality of the evidence supporting screening remains limited. The HIV population should be a priority group to assess and validate new surveillance strategies.


Hepatitis C virus Cirrhosis Hepatocellular carcinoma HIV Screening Surveillance 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Merchante
    • 1
  • M. Rodríguez-Fernández
    • 1
  • J. A. Pineda
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Unit of Infectious Diseases and MicrobiologyHospital Universitario de ValmeSevilleSpain

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