Contemporary Lifestyle Modification Interventions to Improve Metabolic Comorbidities in HIV

  • Kathleen V. FitchEmail author
Complications of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy (GA McComsey, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Complications of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy


Purpose of Review

Metabolic comorbidities including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, all of which are traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors that are highly prevalent in people with HIV (PWH). Bone disease including osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures is also prevalent in PWH. These comorbidities may be prevented and treated in part with lifestyle modification, including changes to dietary and physical habits. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent literature that characterizes current lifestyle habits in PWH as well as the effectiveness of lifestyle strategies to improve metabolic comorbidities prevalent in PWH.

Recent Findings

Recent studies have expanded our knowledge regarding the current lifestyle habits of PWH as well as the potential for lifestyle modification to prevent or improve comorbidities prevalent in PWH. Clinical trials focusing on lifestyle modification have shown some benefit of such interventions on traditional risk factors for comorbidities; however, significant heterogeneity exists between studies and results are not consistent.


Further clinical trials are needed including developing lifestyle strategies that are feasible, effective, and sustainable to prevent and decrease prevalence of comorbidities in this population.


HIV Lifestyle modification Diet Physical activity Metabolic comorbidities Bone disease 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ms. Fitch reports personal fees from Gilead Sciences, Inc., from Merck, outside the submitted work.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metabolism UnitMassachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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