Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 359–370 | Cite as

A Dissemination and Implementation Science Approach to the Epidemic of Opioid Use Disorder in the United States

  • Stephanie M. Mathis
  • Nicholas Hagemeier
  • Angela Hagaman
  • John Dreyzehner
  • Robert P. PackEmail author
The Global Epidemic (SH Vermund, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on The Global Epidemic


Purpose of Review

This review aims to (1) conceptualize the complexity of the opioid use disorder epidemic using a conceptual model grounded in the disease continuum and corresponding levels of prevention and (2) summarize a select set of interventions for the prevention and treatment of opioid use disorder.

Recent Findings

Epidemiologic data indicate non-medical prescription and illicit opioid use have reached unprecedented levels, fueling an opioid use disorder epidemic in the USA. A problem of this magnitude is rooted in multiple supply- and demand-side drivers, the combined effect of which outweighs current prevention and treatment efforts. Multiple primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions, both evidence-informed and evidence-based, are available to address each point along the disease continuum—non-use, initiation, dependence, addiction, and death.


If interventions grounded in the best available evidence are disseminated and implemented across the disease continuum in a coordinated and collaborative manner, public health systems could be increasingly effective in responding to the epidemic.


Opioid use disorder Non-medical use Addiction Prevention Dissemination Implementation science 



The work was supported in part by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under award R24DA036409. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIH.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Office of National Drug Control Policy. Epidemic: responding to America's prescription drug abuse crisis. Executive Office of the President of the United States, Washington, DC. 2011.
  2. 2.
    Kolodny A, Courtwright DT, Hwang CS, Kreiner P, Eadie JL, Clark TW, et al. The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: a public health approach to an epidemic of addiction. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015;36:559–74. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Manchikanti L, Helm S, Fellows B, Janata JW, Pampati V, Grider JS, et al. Opioid epidemic in the United States. Pain Physician. 2012;15:ES9–ES38.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maxwell JC. The prescription drug epidemic in the United States: a perfect storm. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2011;30(3):264–70. Scholar
  5. 5.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse. Prescription drug abuse (NIDA Research Report Series, NIH Publication Number 11–4881). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2011.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buchanich JM, Balmert LC, Burke DS. Exponential growth of the USA overdose epidemic. bioRxiv. 2017;134403. doi:
  7. 7.
    Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Behavioral health trends in the United States: results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 15–4927, NSDUH Series H-50). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2015.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Treatment episode data set (TEDS): 2003–2013. National admissions to substance abuse treatment services (BHSIS series S-75, HHS publication no. (SMA) 15–4934). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2015.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tolia VN, Patrick SW, Bennett MM, Murthy K, Sousa J, Smith PB, et al. Increasing incidence of the neonatal abstinence syndrome in U.S. neonatal ICUs. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(22):2118–26. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital signs: overdoses of prescription opioid pain relievers--United States, 1999--2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(43):1487–92.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Opioid painkiller prescribing: where you live makes a difference. 2014. Accessed 7 May 2016.
  12. 12.
    Paulozzi LJ, Mack KA, Hockenberry JM. Vital signs: variation among states in prescribing of opioid pain relievers and benzodiazepines--United States, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(26):563–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Zee A. The promotion and marketing of OxyContin: commercial triumph, public health tragedy. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(2):221–7. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alexander G, Kruszewski SP, Webster DW. Rethinking opioid prescribing to protect patient safety and public health. JAMA. 2012;308(18):1865–6. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Campbell J. APS 1995 presidential address. Pain Forum. 1996;5:85–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morone NE, Weiner DK. Pain as the 5th vital sign: exposing the vital need for pain education. Clin Ther. 2013;35(11):1728–32. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Office of National Drug Control Policy. Fact sheet: a response to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse. Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC. 2011.
  18. 18.
    Nargiso JE, Ballard EL, Skeer MR. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with nonmedical use of prescription drugs among youth in the United States: a social ecological perspective. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2015;76(1):5–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: summary of national findings (NSDUH series H-48, HHS publication no. (SMA) 14–4863). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2014.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Understanding stigma of mental and substance use disorders. In: Ending discrimination against people with mental and substance use disorders: the evidence for stigma change. Washington, DC: The National Academies of Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rüsch N, Thornicroft G. Does stigma impair prevention of mental disorders? Br J Psychiatry. 2014;204(4):249–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barry CL, McGinty EE, Pescosolido BA, Goldman HH. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(10):1269–72. Scholar
  23. 23.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse. DrugFacts: understanding drug use and addiction. 2016. Accessed 7 May 2016.
  24. 24.
    Winstanley EL, Clark A, Feinberg J, Wilder CM. Barriers to implementation of opioid overdose prevention programs in Ohio. Subst Abus. 2016;37(1):42–6. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid addiction in opioid treatment programs (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 43, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12–4214). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2005.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Compton WM, Jones CM, Baldwin GT. Relationship between nonmedical prescription-opioid use and heroin use. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(2):154–63. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prescription drug overdose data. 2016. Accessed 2 March 2016.
  28. 28.
    Peters PJ, Pontones P, Hoover KW, Patel MR, Galang RR, Shields J, et al. HIV infection linked to injection use of oxymorphone in Indiana, 2014–2015. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(3):229–39. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Broz D. Large community outbreak of HIV-1 linked to injection drug use of oxymorphone - Indiana, 2015. Southern opioid epidemic: crafting an effective public health response symposium; Emory University, Atlanta, GA 2016.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse. Preventing drug use among children and adolescents: a research-based guide for parents, educators, and community leaders (NIH Publication No. 04–4212(A)). 2nd ed. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2003.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: progress and possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    •• Sandler I, Wolchik SA, Cruden G, Mahrer NE, Ahn S, Brincks A, et al. Overview of meta-analyses of the prevention of mental health, substance use, and conduct problems. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2014;10:243–73. An overview of meta-analyses on the prevention of mental health, substance use, and conduct problems indicates prevention and promotion programs can produce significant impacts to prevent multiple problem outcomes, including depression, anxiety, antisocial behavior, and substance use. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Spoth R, Trudeau L, Shin C, Ralston E, Redmond C, Greenberg M, et al. Longitudinal effects of universal preventive intervention on prescription drug misuse: three RCTs with late adolescents and young adults. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(4):665–72. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Johnson EM, Porucznik CA, Anderson JW, Rolfs RT. State-level strategies for reducing prescription drug overdose deaths: Utah's prescription safety program. Pain Med. 2011;12(Suppl 2):S66–72. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gray J, Hagemeier N, Brooks B, Alamian A. Prescription disposal practices: a 2-year ecological study of drug drop box donations in Appalachia. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(9):e89–94. Scholar
  36. 36.
    Spoth R, Trudeau L, Shin C, Redmond C. Long-term effects of universal preventive interventions on prescription drug misuse. Addiction. 2008;103(7):1160–8. Scholar
  37. 37.
    Champion KE, Newton NC, Barrett EL, Teesson M. A systematic review of school-based alcohol and other drug prevention programs facilitated by computers or the internet. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013;32(2):115–23. Scholar
  38. 38.
    Faggiano F, Minozzi S, Versino E, Buscemi D. Universal school-based prevention for illicit drug use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:Cd003020. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sussman S, Arriaza B, Grigsby TJ. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse prevention and cessation programming for alternative high school youth: a review. J Sch Health. 2014;84(11):748–58. Scholar
  40. 40.
    • Kamarudin G, Penm J, Chaar B, Moles R. Educational interventions to improve prescribing competency: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2013;3(8):e003291. Educational interventions can improve prescribing competency. The WHO Guide to Good Prescribing may offer a promising model for designing prescribing programs. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bluestone J, Johnson P, Fullerton J, Carr C, Alderman J, BonTempo J. Effective in-service training design and delivery: evidence from an integrative literature review. Hum Resour Health. 2013;11:51. Scholar
  42. 42.
    Davis D, Galbraith R. Continuing medical education effect on practice performance: effectiveness of continuing medical education; American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based educational guidelines. Chest 2009;135(3 Suppl):42s–48s. doi: Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bloom BS. Effects of continuing medical education on improving physician clinical care and patient health: a review of systematic reviews. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2005;21(3):380–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bordage G, Carlin B, Mazmanian PE. Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge: effectiveness of continuing medical education; American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based educational guidelines. Chest 2009;135(3 Suppl):29s–36s. doi: Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lyon AR, Stirman SW, Kerns SE, Bruns EJ. Developing the mental health workforce: review and application of training approaches from multiple disciplines. Admin Pol Ment Health. 2011;38(4):238–53. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mazmanian PE, Davis DA, Galbraith R. Continuing medical education effect on clinical outcomes: effectiveness of continuing medical education; American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based educational guidelines. Chest 2009;135(3 Suppl):49s–55s. doi: Scholar
  47. 47.
    O'Neil KM, Addrizzo-Harris DJ. Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skills; effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based educational guidelines. Chest. 2009;135(3 Suppl):37s–41s. Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bao Y, Pan Y, Taylor A, Radakrishnan S, Luo F, Pincus HA, et al. Prescription drug monitoring programs are associated with sustained reductions in opioid prescribing by physicians. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016;35(6):1045–51. Scholar
  49. 49.
    Surratt HL, O'Grady C, Kurtz SP, Stivers Y, Cicero TJ, Dart RC, et al. Reductions in prescription opioid diversion following recent legislative interventions in Florida. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014;23(3):314–20. Scholar
  50. 50.
    Patrick SW, Fry CE, Jones TF, Buntin MB. Implementation of prescription drug monitoring programs associated with reductions in opioid-related death rates. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016;35(7):1324–32. Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rutkow L, Chang HY, Daubresse M, Webster DW, Stuart EA, Alexander GC. Effect of Florida's prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill laws on opioid prescribing and use. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(10):1642–9. Scholar
  52. 52.
    • Reifler LM, Droz D, Bailey JE, Schnoll SH, Fant R, Dart RC, et al. Do prescription monitoring programs impact state trends in opioid abuse/misuse? Pain Med. 2012;13(3):434–42. Findings provide preliminary evidence that prescription drug monitoring programs may reduce opioid abuse and misuse over time. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Johnson H, Paulozzi L, Porucznik C, Mack K, Herter B. Decline in drug overdose deaths after state policy changes - Florida, 2010-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(26):569–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kennedy-Hendricks A, Richey M, McGinty EE, Stuart EA, Barry CL, Webster DW. Opioid overdose deaths and Florida's crackdown on pill mills. Am J Public Health. 2016;106(2):291–7. Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lyapustina T, Rutkow L, Chang HY, Daubresse M, Ramji AF, Faul M, et al. Effect of a “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization: the case of Texas. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;159:190–7. Scholar
  56. 56.
    Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Center of Excellence at Brandeis University. Briefing on PDMP effectiveness. Prescription Drug Monitoring Prgram Center of Excellence at Brandeis University, Waltham, MA. 2013.
  57. 57.
    Reisman RM, Shenoy PJ, Atherly AJ, Flowers CR. Prescription opioid usage and abuse relationships: an evaluation of state prescription drug monitoring program efficacy. Subst Abuse. 2009;3:41–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Worley J. Prescription drug monitoring programs, a response to doctor shopping: purpose, effectiveness, and directions for future research. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2012;33(5):319–28. Scholar
  59. 59.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Systems-level implementation of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) Series 33, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13–4741). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2013.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Angus C, Latimer N, Preston L, Li J, Purshouse R. What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care. Front Pyschiatry. 2014;5:114. Scholar
  61. 61.
    Humeniuk R, Ali R, Babor T, Souza-Formigoni ML, de Lacerda RB, Ling W, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in clients recruited from primary health-care settings in four countries. Addiction. 2012;107(5):957–66. Scholar
  62. 62.
    Madras BK, Compton WM, Avula D, Stegbauer T, Stein JB, Clark HW. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: comparison at intake and six months. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99(1–3):280–95. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    O'Donnell A, Anderson P, Newbury-Birch D, Schulte B, Schmidt C, Reimer J, et al. The impact of brief alcohol interventions in primary healthcare: a systematic review of reviews. Alcohol Alcohol. 2014;49(1):66–78. Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sterling S, Valkanoff T, Hinman A, Weisner C. Integrating substance use treatment into adolescent health care. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012;14(5):453–61. Scholar
  65. 65.
    Barbosa C, Cowell A, Bray J, Aldridge A. The cost-effectiveness of alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in emergency and outpatient medical settings. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015;53:1–8. Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dugosh K, Abraham A, Seymour B, McLoyd K, Chalk M, Festinger D. A systematic review on the use of psychosocial interventions in conjunction with medications for the treatment of opioid addiction. J Addict Med. 2016;10(2):93–103. Scholar
  67. 67.
    Thomas CP, Fullerton CA, Kim M, Montejano L, Lyman DR, Dougherty RH, et al. Medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine: assessing the evidence. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(2):158–70. Scholar
  68. 68.
    •• Fullerton CA, Kim M, Thomas CP, Lyman DR, Montejano LB, Dougherty RH, et al. Medication-assisted treatment with methadone: assessing the evidence. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(2):146–57. In this review of meta-analyses, systematic reviews and individual studies, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) had a positive impact on treatment retention and illicit opioid use, especially at doses over 60 mg. There is also evidence for improvements in drug-related HIV risk behaviors, mortality, and criminality. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jhanjee S. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use. Indian J Psychol Med. 2014;36(2):112–8. Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dutra L, Stathopoulou G, Basden SL, Leyro TM, Powers MB, Otto MW. A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(2):179–87. Scholar
  71. 71.
    National Institute on Drug Abuse. Principles of drug addiction treatment: a research-based guide (NIH Publication No. 12–4180). 3rd ed. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hogue A, Henderson CE, Ozechowski TJ, Robbins MS. Evidence base on outpatient behavioral treatments for adolescent substance use: updates and recommendations 2007-2013. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43(5):695–720. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Institute of Medicine. Psychosocial interventions for mental and substance use disorders: a framework for establishing evidence-based standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies of Press; 2015.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:Cd002207. Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tanner-Smith EE, Wilson SJ, Lipsey MW. The comparative effectiveness of outpatient treatment for adolescent substance abuse: a meta-analysis. J Subst Abus Treat. 2013;44(2):145–58. Scholar
  76. 76.
    McQueen K, Murphy-Oikonen J. Neonatal abstinence syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(25):2468–79. Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bagley SM, Wachman EM, Holland E, Brogly SB. Review of the assessment and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2014;9(1):19. Scholar
  78. 78.
    Blumenthal PD, Voedisch A, Gemzell-Danielsson K. Strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy: increasing use of long-acting reversible contraception. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17(1):121–37. Scholar
  79. 79.
    Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Buckel C, Madden T, Allsworth JE, et al. Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(21):1998–2007. Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brogly SB, Saia KA, Walley AY, Du HM, Sebastiani P. Prenatal buprenorphine versus methadone exposure and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(7):673–86. Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kraft WK, Stover MW, Davis JM. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: pharmacologic strategies for the mother and infant. Semin Perinatol. 2016;40(3):203–12. Scholar
  82. 82.
    MacMullen NJ, Dulski LA, Blobaum P. Evidence-based interventions for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatr Nurs. 2014;40(4):165–72. 203 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chandler RK, Fletcher BW, Volkow ND. Treating drug abuse and addiction in the criminal justice system: improving public health and safety. JAMA. 2009;301(2):183–90. Scholar
  84. 84.
    •• Carey SM, Mackin JR, Finigan MW. What works? The ten key components of drug court: research-based best practices. Drug Court Rev. 2012;8(1):6–42. Drug courts can effectively reduce recidivism and increase cost savings among diverse populations. Based on the 69 programs evaluated, the average reduction in recidivism was 32% and the average increase in cost savings was 27%. Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brown RT. Systematic review of the impact of adult drug-treatment courts. Transl Res. 2010;155(6):263–74. Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marlowe DB. Research update on adult drug courts. Need to know. National Association of Drug Court Professionals, Alexandria, VA. 2010.
  87. 87.
    Marlowe DB. Research update on juvenile drug treatment courts. Need to Know. National Association of Drug Court Professionals, Alexandria, VA. 2010.
  88. 88.
    Marlowe DB, Carey SM. Research update on family drug courts. Need to Know. National Association of Drug Court Professionals, Alexandria, VA. 2012.
  89. 89.
    Stein DM, Deberard S, Homan K. Predicting success and failure in juvenile drug treatment court: a meta-analytic review. J Subst Abus Treat. 2013;44(2):159–68. Scholar
  90. 90.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-based opioid overdose prevention programs providing naloxone - United States. 2010 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61(6):101–5.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Clark AK, Wilder CM, Winstanley EL. A systematic review of community opioid overdose prevention and naloxone distribution programs. J Addict Med. 2014;8(3):153–63. Scholar
  92. 92.
    Walley AY, Xuan Z, Hackman HH, Quinn E, Doe-Simkins M, Sorensen-Alawad A, et al. Opioid overdose rates and implementation of overdose education and nasal naloxone distribution in Massachusetts: interrupted time series analysis. BMJ. 2013;346:f174. Scholar
  93. 93.
    Seal KH, Thawley R, Gee L, Bamberger J, Kral AH, Ciccarone D, et al. Naloxone distribution and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for injection drug users to prevent heroin overdose death: a pilot intervention study. J Urban Health. 2005;82(2):303–11. Scholar
  94. 94.
    Piper TM, Stancliff S, Rudenstine S, Sherman S, Nandi V, Clear A, et al. Evaluation of a naloxone distribution and administration program in New York City. Subst Use Misuse. 2008;43(7):858–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bennett AS, Bell A, Tomedi L, Hulsey EG, Kral AH. Characteristics of an overdose prevention, response, and naloxone distribution program in Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. J Urban Health. 2011;88(6):1020–30. Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gordis L. Epidemiology. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nation M, Crusto C, Wandersman A, Kumpfer KL, Seybolt D, Morrissey-Kane E, et al. What works in prevention. Principles of effective prevention programs. Am Psychol. 2003;58(6–7):449–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Adolescent substance use. America's #1 public health problem. New York, NY: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University; 2011.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller T, Hendrie D. Substance abuse prevention dollars and cents: a cost-benefit analysis (DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 07–4298). Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2008.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Butterfoss FD, Cohen L. Prevention works. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10(2 Suppl):81s–5s. Scholar
  101. 101.
    Haegerich TM, Paulozzi LJ, Manns BJ, Jones CM. What we know, and don't know, about the impact of state policy and systems-level interventions on prescription drug overdose. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;145:34–47. Scholar
  102. 102.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Addressing prescription drug abuse in the United States: current activities and future opportunities. Behavioral Health Coordinating Committee, Prescription Drug Abuse Subcommittee, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC. 2013.
  103. 103.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). 2016. Accessed 7 May 2016.
  104. 104.
    Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Training and Technical Assistance Center. Prescription drug monitoring frequently asked questions (FAQ). Accessed 7 May 2016.
  105. 105.
    Public Health Law Program, Office for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Menu of pain management clinic regulation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. 2012.
  106. 106.
    National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws. Part 2: state regulation of pain clinics and legislative trends relative to regulating pain clinics. Prescription drug abuse, addiction and diversion: overview of state legislative and policy initiatives; a three part series. National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws, Charlottesville, VA. 2014.
  107. 107.
    Connock M, Juarez-Garcia A, Jowett S, Frew E, Liu Z, Taylor RJ et al. Methadone and buprenorphine for the management of opioid dependence: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2007;11(9):1–171, iii-iv.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Volkow ND, Frieden TR, Hyde PS, Cha SS. Medication-assisted therapies — tackling the opioid-overdose epidemic. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22):2063–6. Scholar
  109. 109.
    Reif S, George P, Braude L, Dougherty RH, Daniels AS, Ghose SS, et al. Residential treatment for individuals with substance use disorders: assessing the evidence. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(3):301–12. Scholar
  110. 110.
    Galanter M, Dermatis H, Post S, Sampson C. Spirituality-based recovery from drug addiction in the twelve-step fellowship of narcotics anonymous. J Addict Med. 2013;7(3):189–95. Scholar
  111. 111.
    Clark RE, Baxter JD, Aweh G, O'Connell E, Fisher WH, Barton BA. Risk factors for relapse and higher costs among medicaid members with opioid dependence or abuse: opioid agonists, comorbidities, and treatment history. J Subst Abus Treat. 2015;57:75–80. Scholar
  112. 112.
    Weiss RD, Potter JS, Griffin ML, Provost SE, Fitzmaurice GM, McDermott KA, et al. Long-term outcomes from the national drug abuse treatment clinical trials network prescription opioid addiction treatment study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;150:112–9. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    ACOG Committee Opinion No. 524: opioid abuse, dependence, and addiction in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2012;119(5):1070–6. doi:
  114. 114.
    Warren MD, Miller AM, Traylor J, Bauer A, Patrick SW. Implementation of a statewide surveillance system for neonatal abstinence syndrome - Tennessee. 2013 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(5):125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Heil SH, Jones HE, Arria A, Kaltenbach K, Coyle M, Fischer G, et al. Unintended pregnancy in opioid-abusing women. J Subst Abus Treat. 2011;40(2):199–202. Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dumont DM, Brockmann B, Dickman S, Alexander N, Rich JD. Public health and the epidemic of incarceration. Annu Rev Public Health. 2012;33:325–39. Scholar
  117. 117.
    McClelland GM, Elkington KS, Teplin LA, Abram KM. Multiple substance use disorders in juvenile detainees. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43(10):1215–24. Scholar
  118. 118.
    National Institute of Drug Abuse. Principles of drug abuse treatment for criminal justice populations: a research-based guide (NIH Publication No. 11–5316). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2014.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    National Institute of Justice. Drug courts. 2015. Accessed 8 May 2016.
  120. 120.
    Sheidow AJ, Jayawardhana J, Bradford WD, Henggeler SW, Shapiro SB. Money matters: cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court with and without evidence-based treatments. J Child Adolesc Subst. 2012;21(1):69–90. Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kim D, Irwin KS, Khoshnood K. Expanded access to naloxone: options for critical response to the epidemic of opioid overdose mortality. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(3):402–7. Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wheeler E, Jones TS, Gilbert MK, Davidson PJ. Opioid overdose prevention programs providing naloxone to laypersons - United States. 2014 MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(23):631–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fairbairn N, Coffin PO, Walley AY. Naloxone for heroin, prescription opioid, and illicitly made fentanyl overdoses: challenges and innovations responding to a dynamic epidemic. Int J Drug Policy. 2017;46:172–9. Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bazazi AR, Zaller ND, Fu JJ, Rich JD. Preventing opiate overdose deaths: examining objections to take-home naloxone. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010;21(4):1108–13. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Maxwell S, Bigg D, Stanczykiewicz K, Carlberg-Racich S. Prescribing naloxone to actively injecting heroin users: a program to reduce heroin overdose deaths. J Addict Dis. 2006;25(3):89–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Galea S, Worthington N, Piper TM, Nandi VV, Curtis M, Rosenthal DM. Provision of naloxone to injection drug users as an overdose prevention strategy: early evidence from a pilot study in New York City. Addict Behav. 2006;31(5):907–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Green TC, Heimer R, Grau LE. Distinguishing signs of opioid overdose and indication for naloxone: an evaluation of six overdose training and naloxone distribution programs in the United States. Addiction. 2008;103(6):979–89. Scholar
  128. 128.
    Tobin KE, Sherman SG, Beilenson P, Welsh C, Latkin CA. Evaluation of the staying alive programme: training injection drug users to properly administer naloxone and save lives. Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20(2):131–6. Scholar
  129. 129.
    Enteen L, Bauer J, McLean R, Wheeler E, Huriaux E, Kral AH, et al. Overdose prevention and naloxone prescription for opioid users in San Francisco. J Urban Health. 2010;87(6):931–41. Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wagner KD, Valente TW, Casanova M, Partovi SM, Mendenhall BM, Hundley JH, et al. Evaluation of an overdose prevention and response training programme for injection drug users in the skid row area of Los Angeles. California Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21(3):186–93. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lankenau SE, Wagner KD, Silva K, Kecojevic A, Iverson E, McNeely M, et al. Injection drug users trained by overdose prevention programs: responses to witnessed overdoses. J Community Health. 2013;38(1):133–41. Scholar
  132. 132.
    Behar E, Santos G-M, Wheeler E, Rowe C, Coffin PO. Brief overdose education is sufficient for naloxone distribution to opioid users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;148:209–12. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie M. Mathis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nicholas Hagemeier
    • 2
    • 3
  • Angela Hagaman
    • 1
    • 2
  • John Dreyzehner
    • 4
  • Robert P. Pack
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Public HealthEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  2. 2.Center for Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention and TreatmentEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  3. 3.Bill Gatton College of PharmacyEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  4. 4.Tennessee Department of HealthNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations