Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 93–95 | Cite as

The Path to Implementation of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for People Involved in Criminal Justice Systems

  • Lauren Brinkley-RubinsteinEmail author
  • Emily Dauria
  • Marina Tolou-Shams
  • Katerina Christopoulos
  • Philip A. Chan
  • Curt G. Beckwith
  • Sharon Parker
  • Jaimie Meyer
Invited Commentary

The criminal justice (CJ)-involved population in the United States (US) is among the most vulnerable to and heavily impacted by HIV [1]. HIV prevalence is three to five times higher among incarcerated populations than in the general population [2] and one in seven people living with HIV (PLH) pass through CJ systems each year [3]. Among racial and ethnic minorities, HIV and incarceration are even more closely intertwined: one of every five HIV-infected black or Hispanic/Latino adults passes through CJ systems annually [4]. Individuals involved in CJ systems experience a confluence of factors at the individual (e.g., substance abuse, mental health issues, childhood abuse), interpersonal (e.g., inconsistent condom use, intimate partner violence exposure), and community level (e.g., housing instability, unemployment, poverty, disengagement from medical services, stigma) that increase their risk of HIV [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15]. HIV risk is exceptionally high immediately...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Rich JD, Beckwith, C.G., Macmadu, A., Marshall, B.D.L., Brinkley-Rubinstein, L., Amon, J.J., Milloy, M.J., King, M.R.F., Sanchez, J., Atwoli, L., and Altice, F.L. Clinical care of incarcerated people with HIV, viral hepatitis or tuberculosis. The Lancet 2016; Epub ahead of publication. .Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maruschak L. HIV in prisons, 2001–2010. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; 2012.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spaulding AC, Seals RM, Page MJ, Brzozowski AK, Rhodes W, Hammett TM. HIV/AIDS among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 2006: declining share of epidemic but persistent public health opportunity. PLoS One. 2009;4(11):e7558.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beckwith CGZN, Fu JJ, Montague BT, Rich JD. Opportunities to diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV in the criminal justice system. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55(Suppl 1):S49–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Belenko S, Langley S, Crimmins S, Chaple M. HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention education among offenders under community supervision: a hidden risk group. AIDS Educ Prev: Off Publ Int Soc AIDS Educ. 2004;16(4):367–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fickenscher A, Lapidus J, Silk-Walker P, Becker T. Women behind bars: health needs of inmates in a county jail. Public Health Rep. 2001;116(3):191–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    O'Brien CP, Charney DS, Lewis L, et al. Priority actions to improve the care of persons with co-occurring substance abuse and other mental disorders: a call to action. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;56(10):703–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freudenberg N. Adverse effects of US jail and prison policies on the health and well-being of women of color. Am J Public Health. Dec 2002;92(12):1895–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Freudenberg N, Daniels J, Crum M, Perkins T, Richie BE. Coming home from jail: the social and health consequences of community reentry for women, male adolescents, and their families and communities. Am J Public Health. Oct 2005;95(10):1725–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Snyder HN, Sickmund, M. Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 National Report. Washington D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; 2006.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fogel CI. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors. Women Health. 2014;54:694–711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cotten-Oldenburg NU, Jordan BK, Martin SL, Kupper L. Women inmates’ risky sex and drug behaviors: are they related? Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1999;25:129–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Havens JR, Leukenfeld CG, Oser CB, Stanton-Tindall M, Knudson HK, Mooney JL. Examination of an interventionist-led HIV intervention among criminal justice-involved female prisoners. J Exp Criminol. 2009;5(245–72):245–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kramer K, Comfort M. Considerations for HIV prevention for women affected by the criminal justice system. Women Health Issues. 2011;21(6 Suppl):S272–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kelly PJ, Cheng AL, Spencer-Carver E, Ramaswamy M. A syndemic model of women incarcerated in community jails. Public Health Nurs. 2013;31(2):118–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Binswanger IA, Stern MF, Deyo RA, et al. Release from prison—a high risk of death for former inmates. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(2):157–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Binswanger IA, Redmond N, Steiner JF, Hicks LS. Health disparities and the criminal justice system: an agenda for further research and action. J Urban Health. 2011;89(1):98–107.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beckwith CG, Atunah-Jay S, Cohen J, Macalino G, Poshkus M, Rich JD, et al. The feasibility of implementing the HIV sek, test, and treat strategy in jails. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2007;21(1):41–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rich JD, Chandler R, Williams BA, Dumont D, Wang EA, Taxman FS, et al. How health care reform can transform the health of criminal justice-involved individuals. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014;33(3):462–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rich JD, DiClemente R, Levy J, Lyda K, Ruiz MS, Rosen DL, et al. Correctional facilities as partners in reducing HIV disparities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(Suppl 1):S49–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koehn JD, Bach P, Hayashi K, et al. Impact of incarceration on rates of methadone use in a community recruited cohort of injection drug users. Addictive Behav. 2015;46:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Underhill K, Dumon D, Operario D. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(11):e27–e53.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meyer JP MD, El-Bassel N, Altice FL. Leveraging the U.S. Criminal Justice system to access women for HIV interventions. AIDS & Behavior. 2017:Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krakower DS, Mimiaga MJ, Rosenberger JG, Novak DS, Mitty JA, White JM, et al. Limited awareness and low immediate uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men using an internet social networking site. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rucinski KBMN, Sepkowitz KA, Cutler BH, Sweeney MM, Myers JE. Knowledge and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis among an online sample of young men who have sex with men in New York City. AIDS Behav. 2016;7(6):2180–4.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brinkley-Rubinstein L, Turner WL. The health impact of incarceration on HIV positive African American males: a qualitative exploration. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2013;27(8):450–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Krakower DS, Mayer KH. The role of healthcare providers in the roll-out of PrEP. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2016;11(1):41–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    White House Office of National AIDS Policy. National HIV/AIDS strategy for the United States: updated to 2020. Washington D.C., 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Emily Dauria
    • 3
  • Marina Tolou-Shams
    • 3
  • Katerina Christopoulos
    • 4
  • Philip A. Chan
    • 5
  • Curt G. Beckwith
    • 5
  • Sharon Parker
    • 6
  • Jaimie Meyer
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Social MedicineUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Center for Health Equity ResearchUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Weill Institute for NeurosciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  6. 6.Department of Social Work and SociologyNorth Carolina Agricultural and Technical UniversityGreensboroUSA
  7. 7.AIDS ProgramYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations