Lipid Abnormalities and Inflammation in HIV Inflection
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Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and subsequent treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often associated with perturbations in lipid profiles. Furthermore, persistent inflammation, in spite of suppression of viral replication by ART, likely contributes to modifications in lipid composition and function, exacerbating risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased levels of several pro-inflammatory lipid species, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), have been measured in HIV-infected persons and are associated with markers of immune activation. The mechanisms linked to this bidirectional relationship in which inflammation increases lipid levels and promotes their modification, and these modified lipid species perpetuate inflammatory processes, require further investigation. Treatment with statins and other lifestyle modifications, including improvement in dietary intake and exercise, are critical to reducing CVD risk. Well-designed clinical trials that take into account the complex relationships among lipids and inflammation within persons infected with HIV need to be considered.
KeywordsAntiretroviral therapy Inflammation Lipid composition Oxidized LDL Statins HDL cholesterol efflux
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Conflict of Interest
Nicholas T. Funderburg reports grants from NHLBI and has served as consultant for Gilead Inc.
Nehal N. Mehta declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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