Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 107–115 | Cite as

HIV Self-Testing: a Review of Current Implementation and Fidelity

  • Kristecia S. Estem
  • Joseph Catania
  • Jeffrey D. Klausner
The Science of Prevention (JD Stekler and J Baeten, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on The Science of Prevention


Oral HIV self-testing is an innovative and potentially high-impact means to increase HIV-case identification globally. As a screening test, oral HIV self-testing offers the potential for increased adoption through greater convenience and privacy, and the potential to increase the proportion of the population who test regularly. Research on how best to translate the innovation of oral self-testing to high-risk populations is underway. Currently only one oral HIV self-test kit is FDA-approved (OraQuick In-Home HIV Test) and available for retail sale. In the present report we review recent studies on the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of oral HIV testing. Prior work has focused primarily on adoption, but recent studies have begun to identify methods for improving dissemination and problems associated with self-implementation. At present a major barrier to wider adoption is the relatively high retail cost of the oral HIV test kit. Significant but minor barriers are represented by overly complex instructional materials for some population segments, and dissemination programs of unknown efficacy. Theoretical and practical suggestions for conducting research on dissemination, adoption, and implementation of oral HIV testing are discussed.


HIV HIV self-testing Men who have sex with men (MSM) African-Americans Fidelity (performance) HIV prevention Science of prevention HIV diagnosis Review 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Kristecia Estem, Joe Catania, and Jeffrey D. Klausner declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristecia S. Estem
    • 1
  • Joseph Catania
    • 2
  • Jeffrey D. Klausner
    • 3
  1. 1.New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of HIV/AIDS Prevention and ControlQueensUSA
  2. 2.Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, Oregon State University College of Public Health and Human SciencesCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public HealthLos AngelesUSA

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