Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 173–190 | Cite as

A Systematic Review of Recent Smartphone, Internet and Web 2.0 Interventions to Address the HIV Continuum of Care

  • Kathryn E. Muessig
  • Manali Nekkanti
  • Jose Bauermeister
  • Sheana Bull
  • Lisa B. Hightow-WeidmanEmail author
The Science of Prevention (JD Stekler, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on The Science of Prevention


eHealth, mHealth and “Web 2.0” social media strategies can effectively reach and engage key populations in HIV prevention across the testing, treatment, and care continuum. To assess how these tools are currently being used within the field of HIV prevention and care, we systematically reviewed recent (2013–2014) published literature, conference abstracts, and funded research. Our searches identified 23 published intervention studies and 32 funded projects underway. In this synthesis we describe the technology modes applied and the stages of the HIV care cascade addressed, including both primary and secondary prevention activities. Overall trends include use of new tools including social networking sites, provision of real-time assessment and feedback, gamification and virtual reality. While there has been increasing attention to use of technology to address the care continuum, gaps remain around linkage to care, retention in care, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy.


mHealth eHealth Internet HIV Mobile phone Smartphone Social media Intervention Prevention 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Kathryn E. Muessig, Manali Nekkanti, Jose Bauermeister, and Sheana Bull report that they have NIH-funded grants.

Lisa B. Hightow-Weidman reports personal fees from Gilead Sciences and personal fees from Janssen Therapeutics.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Mugavero MJ, Amico KR, Horn T, Thompson MA. The state of engagement in HIV care in the United States: from cascade to continuum to control. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1164–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Greenberg AE, Hader SL, Masur H, Young AT, Skillicorn J, Dieffenbach CW. Fighting HIV/AIDS in Washington, D.C. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009;28:1677–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen MS, McCauley M, Sugarman J. Establishing HIV treatment as prevention in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 randomized trial: an ethical odyssey. Clin Trials. 2012;9:340–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen MS, Smith MK, Muessig KE, Hallett TB, Powers KA, Kashuba AD. Antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 prevents transmission of HIV-1: where do we go from here? Lancet. 2013;382:1515–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, et al. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2587–99.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grant RM, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu A, Amico KR, Mehrotra M, et al. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:820–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:493–505.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.•
    Catalani C, Philbrick W, Fraser H, Mechael P, Israelski DM. mHealth for HIV Treatment & Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Open AIDS J. 2013;7:17–41. This article presents a detailed review of mHealth interventions to support HIV care (up to December 2011). See especially, the detailed assessment of these studies presented in the article’s Tables 1 and 2.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sullivan PS, Grey JA, Simon Rosser BR. Emerging technologies for HIV prevention for MSM: what we have learned, and ways forward. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63 Suppl 1:S102–107.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.••
    Allison S, Bauermeister JA, Bull S, Lightfoot M, Mustanski B, Shegog R, et al. The intersection of youth, technology, and new media with sexual health: moving the research agenda forward. J Adolesc Health. 2012;51:207–12. This article summarizes proceedings and key recommendations from a March 2011 joint meeting of the Internet Sexuality Information Services, National Institute of Mental Health, and the Ford Foundation. The meeting aimed to address the state and possibilities of using new forms of technology for sexual health promotion research. Successful case studies were presented as well as topical discussions around research-community partnerships, research ethics, use of theory, intervention approaches, recruitment methods, and measuring impact.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noar SM, Pierce LB, Black HG. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis. Human Communication Research. 2010;36:261–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Noar SM, Black HG, Pierce LB. Efficacy of computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions: a meta-analysis. AIDS. 2009;23:107–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Selmi PM, Klein MH, Greist JH, Sorrell SP, Erdman HP. Computer-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:51–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Newman MG, Kenardy J, Herman S, Taylor CB. Comparison of palmtop-computer-assisted brief cognitive-behavioral treatment to cognitive-behavioral treatment for panic disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1997;65:178–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lenert L, Munoz RF, Stoddard J, Delucchi K, Bansod A, Skoczen S, et al. Design and pilot evaluation of an internet smoking cessation program. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2003;10:16–20.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feil EG, Noell J, Lichtenstein E, Boles SM, McKay HG. Evaluation of an Internet-based smoking cessation program: lessons learned from a pilot study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:189–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Woodruff SI, Edwards CC, Conway TL, Elliott SP. Pilot test of an Internet virtual world chat room for rural teen smokers. J Adolesc Health. 2001;29:239–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sciamanna CN, Lewis B, Tate D, Napolitano MA, Fotheringham M, Marcus BH. User attitudes toward a physical activity promotion website. Prev Med. 2002;35:612–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tate DF, Jackvony EH, Wing RR. Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289:1833–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tate DF, Wing RR, Winett RA. Using Internet technology to deliver a behavioral weight loss program. JAMA. 2001;285:1172–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Napolitano MA, Fotheringham M, Tate D, Sciamanna C, Leslie E, Owen N, et al. Evaluation of an internet-based physical activity intervention: a preliminary investigation. Ann Behav Med. 2003;25:92–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pew Resesarch Center Internet Project. “Cell Phone and Smartphone Ownership Demographics.” 2014. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 2014.
  23. 23.
    Pew Research Center Global Attitudes Project. “Emerging Nations Embrace Internet, Mobile Technology.” February 13, 2014. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 2014.
  24. 24.
    Muessig KE, Pike EC, Legrand S, Hightow-Weidman LB. Mobile phone applications for the care and prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases: a review. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15:e1.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Horvath T, Azman H, Kennedy GE, Rutherford GW. Mobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012,3:Cd009756.Google Scholar
  26. 26.•
    Robustillo Cortes Mde L, Cantudo Cuenca MR, Morillo Verdugo R, Calvo Cidoncha E. High Quantity But Limited Quality in Healthcare Applications Intended for HIV-Infected Patients. Telemed J E Health. 2014;20:729–35. This article reviews available smartphone applications (up to May 2013) for HIV care. Specifically assesses the quality of information provided. Includes a novel weighted ranking system. Only 1 out of 41 apps received the highest score of “A”, while 27/41 (65.9%) scored in the lowest class, “F”, not even meeting minimal criteria. Includes Spanish-language apps.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Duggan M, Smith A. Social Media Update 2013. Pew Research Internet Project. Washington DC; December 30, 2013. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 2014.
  28. 28.
    Grindr:The world’s biggest mobile network of guys. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 2014.
  29. 29.
    Lapowsky I. Tinder May Not Be Worth $5B, But It’s Way More Valuable Than You Think. In: Wired Magazine; published online April 11, 2014. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 14.
  30. 30.••
    Grov C, Breslow AS, Newcomb ME, Rosenberger JG, Bauermeister JA. Gay and bisexual men’s use of the Internet: research from the 1990s through 2013. J Sex Res. 2014;51:390–409. This article presents a thorough historical review of the role and evolution of the Internet and sex (and HIV research/intervention) for MSM. The review is divided and presented chronologically into the following periods: 1990s, 2000–2004, 2005–2009, and 2010–2014 – with this last period focused on the mobile web and social media.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.•
    Christensen JL, Miller LC, Appleby PR, Corsbie-Massay C, Godoy CG, Marsella SC, et al. Reducing shame in a game that predicts HIV risk reduction for young adult MSM: a randomized trial delivered nationally over the Web. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18716. This article presents 3-month follow-up findings from SOLVE (Socially Optimized Learning in Virtual Environments), an online intervention aimed to reduce UAI indirectly via reduced stigma/shame. 3 month follow-up found significant shame reduction, p < 0.001; significant decrease in UAI: (point estimate −0.10, 95% CI [−0.01 to −0.23]. 6 month follow-up data is also significant and will be forthcoming in 2014–2015.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ybarra ML, Bull SS, Prescott TL, Korchmaros JD, Bangsberg DR, Kiwanuka JP. Adolescent abstinence and unprotected sex in CyberSenga, an Internet-based HIV prevention program: randomized clinical trial of efficacy. PLoS One. 2013;8:e70083.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ybarra ML, Bull SS, Prescott TL, Birungi R. Acceptability and feasibility of CyberSenga: an Internet-based HIV-prevention program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. AIDS Care. 2014;26:441–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Villegas N, Santisteban D, Cianelli R, Ferrer L, Ambrosia T, Peragallo N, et al. The development, feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based STI-HIV prevention intervention for young Chilean women. Int Nurs Rev. 2014;61:55–63.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fakhouri T. Data collection in games for health. YTH Live Conference. San Francisco, CA; April 6-8, 2014. Available at: .
  36. 36.
    Bauermeister J. Get Connected: A Tailored web intervention for young MSM. YTH Live Conference. San Francisco, CA; April 6-8, 2014. Available at:
  37. 37.
    Bonnet Rivera AM, Garcia Perez WG. Innovative Strategies to Expand Access to HIV testing, Increase linkage to Care Among High-Risk Latino Young Men who Have Sex With Men (YMSM) in Puerto Rico. United States Conference on AIDS. San Diego, CA; October 2–5, 2014. Abstract available at: , pg 117.
  38. 38.
    Jones R, Green K. Every Dose Every Day: Innovative E-learning Toolkit Supporting Prevention with Positive Persons. United States Conference on AIDS. San Diego, CA; October 2–5, 2014. Abstract available at: , pg 74.
  39. 39.
    Milam J, Jain S, Daar E, Dube M, Seefreid E, Ellorin E, et al. Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Risk Reduction Intervention in HIV+ Men Who Have Sex With Men. In: Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). Boston, MA; March 3–6, 2014. Poster #943,
  40. 40.
    Miranda J, Cote J, Godin G, Blais M, Otis J, Gueheneuc YG, et al. An Internet-Based Intervention (Condom-Him) to Increase Condom Use Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Res Protoc. 2013;2:e39.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.•
    Danielson CK, McCauley JL, Jones AM, Borkman AL, Miller S, Ruggiero KJ. Feasibility of delivering evidence-based HIV/STI prevention programming to a community sample of African American teen girls via the internet. AIDS Educ Prev. 2013;25:394–404. This article presents a pilot study of a web adaptation of the CDC evidence-based intervention, Sistas, Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering, among 41 African American women, age 13-18. Pre-post study, the authors found significant increases in HIV/STI risk knowledge and condom use self-efficacy.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bull SS, Levine DK, Black SR, Schmiege SJ, Santelli J. Social media-delivered sexual health intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43:467–74.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Copenhaver MM, Lee IC. Examining the decay of HIV risk reduction outcomes following a community-friendly intervention targeting injection drug users in treatment. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2007;39:223–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National HIV Prevention Progress Report, 2013. Atlanta, GA; December, 2013. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 14.
  45. 45.
    UNAIDS. The Gap Report. Geneva; 2014. Available at: Accessed 31 Oct 14.
  46. 46.
    Jones R, Hoover DR, Lacroix LJ. A randomized controlled trial of soap opera videos streamed to smartphones to reduce risk of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in young urban African American women. Nurs Outlook 2013,61:205-215.e203.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Phillips KA, Epstein DH, Mezghanni M, Vahabzadeh M, Reamer D, Agage D, et al. Smartphone Delivery of Mobile HIV Risk Reduction Education. AIDS Res Treat. 2013;2013:231956.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pachankis JE, Lelutiu-Weinberger C, Golub SA, Parsons JT. Developing an online health intervention for young gay and bisexual men. AIDS Behav. 2013;17:2986–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lelutiu-Weinberger C, Pachankis JE, Gamarel KE, Surace A, Golub SA, Parsons JT. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Efficacy of a Live-Chat Social Media Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men. AIDS Behav epub ahead of print 26 September 2014. DOI:  10.1007/s10461-014-0911-z.
  50. 50.
    Marie J. How effectively eroding STD stigma facilitates prevention. STD Prevention Conference. Atlanta, GA; June 9-12, 2014. TP 51, Abstract available in: Sex Transm Diseases 2014,41(S1):S53.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Anand T, Ananworanich J, Parwati Merati T, Yunihastuti E, Imran D, Nitpolprasert C, et al. A culturally sensitive online communication campaign to reach hidden men who have sex with men for HIV/STI prevention and testing in Indonesia: In: 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; June 30 – July 3, 2013. Abstract #WEPE590, avilable at: Accessed 10/31/2014
  52. 52.
    Ko NY, Hsieh CH, Wang MC, Lee C, Chen CL, Chung AC, et al. Effects of Internet popular opinion leaders (iPOL) among Internet-using men who have sex with men. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15:e40.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Young SD, Zhao M, Teiu K, Kwok J, Gill H, Gill N. A social-media based HIV prevention intervention using peer leaders. J Consum Health Internet. 2013;17:353–61.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Young SD, Jaganath D. Online social networking for HIV education and prevention: a mixed-methods analysis. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:162–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Young SD, Holloway I, Jaganath D, Rice E, Westmoreland D, Project CT, et al. Online Social Network Changes in an HIV Prevention Randomized Controlled Trial for African American and Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:1707–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Young SD, Daniels J, Chiu CJ, Bolan RK, Flynn RP, Kwok J, et al. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2014;9:e103790.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.••
    Young SD, Cumberland WG, Lee SJ, Jaganath D, Szekeres G, Coates T. Social networking technologies as an emerging tool for HIV prevention: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:318–24. Study presents an innovated online peer-leader diffusion of innovation intervention for minority MSM in the US which successfully increased ordering (and returning) of HIV home testing kits. Demonstrates the feasibility of using a social networking platform (Facebook) to promote testing among a key population.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zou H, Wu Z, Yu J, Li M, Ablimit M, Li F, et al. Internet-facilitated, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinic-based HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China. PLoS One. 2013;8:e51919.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gaysynsky A, Romansky-Poulin K, Arpadi S. “My YAP Family”: Analysis of a Facebook Group for Young Adults Living with HIV. AIDS Behav epub ahead of print, 5 September 2014. DOI:  10.1007/s10461-014-0887-8.
  60. 60.
    Marhefka SL, Iziduh S, Fuhrmann HJ, Lopez B, Glueckauf R, Lynn V, et al. Internet-based video-group delivery of Healthy Relationships–a “prevention with positives” intervention: report on a single group pilot test among women living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2013;25:904–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Young SD. Social media technologies for HIV prevention study retention among minority men who have sex with men (MSM). AIDS Behav. 2014;18:1625–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Starks K. Cognitive behavioral game design: a unified model for designing serious games. Front Psychol. 2014;5:28.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brox E, Fernandez-Luque L, Tollefsen T. Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health. Appl Clin Inform. 2011;2:128–42.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Muessig KE, Pike EC, Fowler B, LeGrand S, Parsons JT, Bull SS, et al. Putting prevention in their pockets: developing mobile phone-based HIV interventions for black men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27:211–22.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    LeGrand S, Muessig KE, Pike EC, Baltierra N, Hightow-Weidman LB. If you build it will they come? Addressing social isolation within a technology-based HIV intervention for young black men who have sex with men. AIDS Care. 2014;26:1194–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Muessig K, Baltierra N, Pike E, LeGrand S, Hightow-Weidman L. Achieving HIV risk reduction through, a user-driven eHealth intervention for young black men who have sex with men and transgender women who have sex with men Digital Culture & Education 2014,6:164-182. Available at:
  67. 67.
    Albarracin D, Gillette JC, Earl AN, Glasman LR, Durantini MR, Ho MH. A test of major assumptions about behavior change: a comprehensive look at the effects of passive and active HIV-prevention interventions since the beginning of the epidemic. Psychol Bull. 2005;131:856–97.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.•
    Schnall R, Travers J, Rojas M, Carballo-Dieguez A. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16:e134. This systematic review (up to April 2014) for HIV prevention among MSM identified 13 relevant eHealth interventions. The diversity of outcomes and formats prevented meta-analysis but the authors conclude that findings are promising on a whole and recommend testing longer intervention periods. See especially Table 2 for comparative results.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Deglise C, Suggs LS, Odermatt P. SMS for disease control in developing countries: a systematic review of mobile health applications. J Telemed Telecare. 2012;18:273–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Finitsis DJ, Pellowski JA, Johnson BT. Text message intervention designs to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2014;9:e88166.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gurman TA, Rubin SE, Roess AA. Effectiveness of mHealth behavior change communication interventions in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature. J Health Commun. 2012;17 Suppl 1:82–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    van Velthoven MH, Brusamento S, Majeed A, Car J. Scope and effectiveness of mobile phone messaging for HIV/AIDS care: a systematic review. Psychol Health Med. 2013;18:182–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Winetrobe H, Rice E, Bauermeister J, Petering R, Holloway IW. Associations of unprotected anal intercourse with Grindr-met partners among Grindr-using young men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. AIDS Care. 2014;26:1303–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Landovitz RJ, Tseng CH, Weissman M, Haymer M, Mendenhall B, Rogers K, et al. Epidemiology, sexual risk behavior, and HIV prevention practices of men who have sex with men using GRINDR in Los Angeles, California. J Urban Health. 2013;90:729–39.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    eMarketer. Worldwide Smartphone Usage to Grow 25% in 2014: Nine countries to surpass 50% smartphone penetration this year. Published online, June 11, 2014. Available at: Accessed 23 Nov 2014.
  76. 76.
    International Data Corporation (IDC Corporate USA). Smartphone OS Market Share, Q2 2014. Published online, October, 2014. Available at: Accessed 23 Nov 2014.
  77. 77.
    Itaborahy LP, Zhu JS. State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws: Criminalisation, protection and recognition of same-sex love. International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association, May 2013 Edition. Available at: Accessed 23 Nov 2014.
  78. 78.
    BBC News, China. China employs two million microblog monitors state media say. Published online, October 4, 2013. Available at: Accessed 23 Nov 2014.
  79. 79.
    Reporters Without Borders for Freedom of Information. The Enemies of Internet, Special Edition: Surveillance; State Enemies: China. Available at: Accessed 23 Nov 2014.
  80. 80.
    Goldenberg T, McDougal SJ, Sullivan PS, Stekler JD, Stephenson R. Preferences for a Mobile HIV Prevention Application for Men Who Have Sex With Men. J Med Internet Res mHealth uHealth. 2014;2:e47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn E. Muessig
    • 1
  • Manali Nekkanti
    • 1
  • Jose Bauermeister
    • 2
  • Sheana Bull
    • 3
  • Lisa B. Hightow-Weidman
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Health BehaviorUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public HealthUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Community and Behavioral HealthUniversity of Colorado School of Public HealthAuroraUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations