Advertisement

Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 376–392 | Cite as

Enhancing Linkage and Retention in HIV Care: a Review of Interventions for Highly Resourced and Resource-Poor Settings

  • N. Lance Okeke
  • Jan OstermannEmail author
  • Nathan M. Thielman
Behavioral-Bio-Medical Interface (JL Brown and RJ DiClemente, Section Editors)

Abstract

Given the widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy, engagement of HIV-infected persons in care is a global priority. We reviewed 51 studies, published in the past decade, assessing strategies for improving linkage to and retention in HIV care. The review included studies from highly resourced settings (HRS) and resource-poor settings (RPS), specifically the USA and sub-Saharan Africa. In HRS, strength-based case management was best supported for improving linkage and retention in care; peer navigation and clinic-based health promotion were supported for improving retention. In RPS, point of care CD4 testing was best supported for improving linkage to care; decentralization, and task-shifting for improving retention. Novel interventions continue to emerge in HRS and RPS, yet many strategies have not been adequately evaluated. Further consideration should be given to analyses that identify which interventions, or combinations of interventions, are most effective, cost-effective, scalable, and aligned with patient preferences for HIV care.

Keywords

HIV Antiretroviral therapy Treatment cascade Engagement in care Linkage to care Retention Healthcare utilization Patient-centered care 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

N. Lance Okeke and Jan Ostermann declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Nathan M. Thielman reports receiving other support from Cubist Pharmaceuticals as a consultant and other support from The France Foundation for consultant work in developing CME activity. In addition, Dr. Thielman is a coinventor for a patent, Stable Glutamine Derivatives for Oral and Intravenous Rehydration and Nutrition Therapy issued to the University of Virginia Patents Foundation.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Global Report: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012. UNAIDS. Geneva, Switzerland. 2012. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2012/gr2012/20121120_UNAIDS_Global_Report_2012_with_annexes_en.pdf. Accessed 9 Jul 2014.
  2. 2.
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N, et al. Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(6):493–505.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Giordano TP, Gifford AL, White Jr AC, Suarez-Almazor ME, Rabeneck L, Hartman C, et al. Retention in care: a challenge to survival with HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(11):1493–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Horstmann E, Brown J, Islam F, Buck J, Agins BD. Retaining HIV-infected patients in care: where are we? Where do we go from here? Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(5):752–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robbins GK, Daniels B, Zheng H, Chueh H, Meigs JB, Freedberg KA. Predictors of antiretroviral treatment failure in an urban HIV clinic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44(1):30–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park WB, Choe PG, Kim SH, Jo JH, Bang JH, Kim HB, et al. One-year adherence to clinic visits after highly active antiretroviral therapy: a predictor of clinical progress in HIV patients. J Intern Med. 2007;261(3):268–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    White House Office of National AIDS Policy. National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States Washington, D.C. 2010. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/uploads/NHAS.pdf2. Accessed July 9 2014.
  8. 8.
    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Treatment 2015. Geneva, Switzerland. 2012. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2013/JC2484_treatment-2015_en.pdf. Accessed 9 Jul 2014.
  9. 9.••
    Mugavero MJ, Amico KR, Horn T, Thompson MA. The state of engagement in HIV care in the United States: from cascade to continuum to control. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(8):1164–71. A useful update on the status of engagement in the USA.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    United States Department of Health and Human Services. HIV core indicators. Washington, DC. 2012. Available at: http://blog.aids.gov/2012/08/secretary-sebelius-approves-indicators-for-monitoring-hhs-funded-hiv-services.html. Accessed July 9 2014.
  11. 11.•
    Fox MP, Larson B, Rosen S. Defining retention and attrition in pre-antiretroviral HIV care: proposals based on experience in Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17(10):1235–44. A review of measures of engagement in HIV care in resource-poor settings.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.•
    Mugavero MJ, Westfall AO, Zinski A, Davila J, Drainoni ML, Gardner LI, et al. Measuring retention in HIV care: the elusive gold standard. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;61(5):574–80. A study attempting to assess the most comprehensive measures for engagement in HIV care.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gardner EM, McLees MP, Steiner JF, Del Rio C, Burman WJ. The spectrum of engagement in HIV care and its relevance to test-and-treat strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(6):793–800.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV in the United States: the stages of care. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/2012/Stages-of_Care-FactSheet-508.pdf. Accessed July 9 2014.
  15. 15.•
    Althoff KN, Rebeiro P, Brooks JT, Buchacz K, Gebo K, Martin J, et al. Disparities in the quality of HIV care when using US Department of Health and Human Services indicators. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(8):1185–9. A study measuring linkage and retention in care in a well monitored large cohort in the USA and Canada.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.••
    Rosen S, Fox MP. Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2011;8(7):e1001056. A comprehensive review of the state of retention in care in sub-Saharan Africa.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kilmarx PH, Mutasa-Apollo T. Patching a leaky pipe: the cascade of HIV care. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2013;8(1):59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.•
    Kranzer K, Govindasamy D, Ford N, Johnston V, Lawn SD. Quantifying and addressing losses along the continuum of care for people living with HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15(2):17383. A large review attempting to re-construct the “treatment cascade” in sub-Saharan Africa from derived estimates of previously published studies.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.••
    Thompson MA, Mugavero MJ, Amico KR, Cargill VA, Chang LW, Gross R, et al. Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care panel. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(11):817–33. Comprehensive expert-based guidelines on strategies for improving engagement in HIV care.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gardner LI, Metsch LR, Anderson-Mahoney P, Loughlin AM, del Rio C, Strathdee S, et al. Efficacy of a brief case management intervention to link recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons to care. AIDS. 2005;19(4):423–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Craw JA, Gardner LI, Marks G, Rapp RC, Bosshart J, Duffus WA, et al. Brief strengths-based case management promotes entry into HIV medical care: results of the antiretroviral treatment access study-II. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2008;47(5):597–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wohl DA, Scheyett A, Golin CE, White B, Matuszewski J, Bowling M, et al. Intensive case management before and after prison release is no more effective than comprehensive pre-release discharge planning in linking HIV-infected prisoners to care: a randomized trial. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(2):356–64.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boccour A, Renaud TC, Udeagu CC, Shepard CW. HIV partner services are associated with timely linkage to medical care. AIDS. 2013;27(18):2961–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naar-King S, Bradford J, Coleman S, Green-Jones M, Cabral H, Tobias C. Retention in care of persons newly diagnosed with HIV: outcomes of the Outreach Initiative. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21 Suppl 1:S40–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Faal M, Naidoo N, Glencross DK, Venter WD, Osih R. Providing immediate CD4 count results at HIV testing improves ART initiation. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2011;58(3):e54–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Govindasamy D, Kranzer K, van Schaik N, et al. Linkage to HIV, TB and non-communicable disease care from a mobile testing unit in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80017.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jani IV, Sitoe NE, Alfai ER, Chongo PL, Quevedo JI, Rocha BM, et al. Effect of point-of-care CD4 cell count tests on retention of patients and rates of antiretroviral therapy initiation in primary health clinics: an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2011;378(9802):1572–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Killam WP, Tambatamba BC, Chintu N, Rouse D, Stringer E, Bweupe M, et al. Antiretroviral therapy in antenatal care to increase treatment initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women: a stepped-wedge evaluation. AIDS. 2010;24(1):85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Larson BA, Schnippel K, Ndibongo B, Xulu T, Brennan A, Long L, et al. Rapid point-of-care CD4 testing at mobile HIV testing sites to increase linkage to care: an evaluation of a pilot program in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2012;61(2):e13–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Muhamadi L, Tumwesigye NM, Kadobera D, Marrone G, Wabwire-Mangen F, Pariyo G, et al. A single-blind randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of extended counseling on uptake of pre-antiretroviral care in Eastern Uganda. Trials. 2011;12:184.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Patten GE, Wilkinson L, Conradie K, Isaakidis P, Harries AD, Edginton ME, et al. Impact on ART initiation of point-of-care CD4 testing at HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive youth in Khayelitsha, South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18518.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    van Rooyen H, Barnabas RV, Baeten JM, Phakathi Z, Joseph P, Krows M, et al. High HIV testing uptake and linkage to care in a novel program of home-based HIV counseling and testing with facilitated referral in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2013;64(1):e1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Waxman MJ, Kimaiyo S, Ongaro N, Wools-Kaloustian KK, Flanigan TP, Carter EJ. Initial outcomes of an emergency department rapid HIV testing program in western Kenya. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21(12):981–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hightow-Weidman LB, Jones K, Wohl AR, Futterman D, Outlaw A, Phillips 2nd G, et al. Early linkage and retention in care: findings from the outreach, linkage, and retention in care initiative among young men of color who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011;25 Suppl 1:S31–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bradford JB, Coleman S, Cunningham W. HIV system navigation: an emerging model to improve HIV care access. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21 Suppl 1:S49–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Andersen M, Hockman E, Smereck G, Tinsley J, Milfort D, Wilcox R, et al. Retaining women in HIV medical care. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2007;18(3):33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Willis S, Castel AD, Ahmed T, Olejemeh C, Frison L, Kharfen M. Linkage, engagement, and viral suppression rates among HIV-infected persons receiving care at medical case management programs in Washington, DC. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2013;64 Suppl 1:S33–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Naar-King S, Outlaw A, Green-Jones M, Wright K, Parsons JT. Motivational interviewing by peer outreach workers: a pilot randomized clinical trial to retain adolescents and young adults in HIV care. AIDS Care. 2009;21(7):868–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wohl AR, Garland WH, Wu J, Au CW, Boger A, Dierst-Davies R, et al. A youth-focused case management intervention to engage and retain young gay men of color in HIV care. AIDS Care. 2011;23(8):988–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cabral HJ, Tobias C, Rajabiun S, Sohler N, Cunningham C, Wong M, et al. Outreach program contacts: do they increase the likelihood of engagement and retention in HIV primary care for hard-to-reach patients? AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2007;21 Suppl 1:S59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davila JA, Miertschin N, Sansgiry S, et al. Centralization of HIV services in HIV-positive African-American and Hispanic youth improves retention in care. AIDS Care. 2013;25(2):202–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Enriquez M, Farnan R, Cheng AL, Almeida A, Del Valle D, Pulido-Parra M, et al. Impact of a bilingual/bicultural care team on HIV-related health outcomes. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2008;19(4):295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.•
    Gardner LI, Marks G, Craw JA, Wilson TE, Drainoni ML, Moore RD, et al. A low-effort, clinic-wide intervention improves attendance for HIV primary care. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(8):1124–34. First study to explore the role of clinic-based health promotion media for improving retention in care.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.•
    Gardner LI, Giordano TP, Marks G, Wilson TE, Craw JA, Drainoni ML, et al. Enhanced personal contact with HIV patients improves retention in primary care: a randomized trial in 6 US HIV clinics. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(5):725–34. High-quality randomized trial assessing individual components of a “package” intervention to improve retention in care.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Purcell DW, Latka MH, Metsch LR, Latkin CA, Gomez CA, Mizuno Y, et al. Results from a randomized controlled trial of a peer-mentoring intervention to reduce HIV transmission and increase access to care and adherence to HIV medications among HIV-seropositive injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2007;46 Suppl 2:S35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Alamo ST, Wagner GJ, Sunday P, Wanyenze RK, Ouma J, Kamya M, et al. Electronic medical records and same day patient tracing improves clinic efficiency and adherence to appointments in a community based HIV/AIDS care program, in Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(2):368–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Balcha TT, Jeppsson A. Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment: a comparison between hospitals and health centers in Ethiopia. J Int Assoc AIDS Care. 2010;9(5):318–24.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bedelu M, Ford N, Hilderbrand K, Reuter H. Implementing antiretroviral therapy in rural communities: the Lusikisiki model of decentralized HIV/AIDS care. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 Suppl 3:S464–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Braitstein P, Siika A, Hogan J, Kosgei R, Sang E, Sidle J, et al. A clinician-nurse model to reduce early mortality and increase clinic retention among high-risk HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral treatment. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012;15(1):7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.•
    Brennan AT, Long L, Maskew M, Sanne I, Jaffray I, MacPhail P, et al. Outcomes of stable HIV-positive patients down-referred from a doctor-managed antiretroviral therapy clinic to a nurse-managed primary health clinic for monitoring and treatment. AIDS. 2011;25(16):2027–36. High-quality prospective study assessing the role of de-centralization/task-shifting in HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chan AK, Mateyu G, Jahn A, Schouten E, Arora P, Mlotha W, et al. Outcome assessment of decentralization of antiretroviral therapy provision in a rural district of Malawi using an integrated primary care model. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15 Suppl 1:90–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Decroo T, Telfer B, Biot M, Maikere J, Dezembro S, Cumba LI, et al. Distribution of antiretroviral treatment through self-forming groups of patients in Tete Province, Mozambique. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2011;56(2):e39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fatti G, Grimwood A, Bock P. Better antiretroviral therapy outcomes at primary healthcare facilities: an evaluation of three tiers of ART services in four South African provinces. PLoS One. 2010;5(9):e12888.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fatti G, Meintjes G, Shea J, Eley B, Grimwood A. Improved survival and antiretroviral treatment outcomes in adults receiving community-based adherence support: 5-year results from a multicentre cohort study in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2012;61(4):e50–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.•
    Franke MF, Kaigamba F, Socci AR, Hakizamungu M, Patel A, Bagiruwigize E, et al. Improved retention associated with community-based accompaniment for antiretroviral therapy delivery in rural Rwanda. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(9):1319–26. Recent study assessing the role of a multi-level intervention in improving adherence and care retention in a severely resource poor setting.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Greig J, O'Brien DP, Ford N, Spelman T, Sabapathy K, Shanks L. Similar mortality and reduced loss to follow-up in integrated compared with vertical programs providing antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2012;59(5):e92–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Humphreys CP, Wright J, Walley J, Mamvura CT, Bailey KA, Ntshalintshali SN, et al. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:229.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jaffar S, Amuron B, Foster S, Birungi J, Levin J, Namara G, et al. Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial. Lancet. 2009;374(9707):2080–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.•
    Amuron B, Levin J, Birunghi J, Namara G, Coutinho A, Grosskurth H, et al. Mortality in an antiretroviral therapy programme in Jinja, south-east Uganda: a prospective cohort study. AIDS Res Ther. 2011;8:39. Large randomized study examining the role of home-based care in improving retention in care in sub-Saharan Africa.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kohler PK, Chung MH, McGrath CJ, Benki-Nugent SF, Thiga JW, John-Stewart GC. Implementation of free cotrimoxazole prophylaxis improves clinic retention among antiretroviral therapy-ineligible clients in Kenya. AIDS. 2011;25(13):1657–61.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kunutsor S, Walley J, Muchuro S, Katabira E, Balidawa H, Namagala E, et al. Improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan African HIV-positive populations: an enhanced adherence package. AIDS Care. 2012;24(10):1308–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lambdin BH, Micek MA, Sherr K, Gimbel S, Karagianis M, Lara J, et al. Integration of HIV care and treatment in primary health care centers and patient retention in central Mozambique: a retrospective cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2013;62(5):e146–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Massaquoi M, Zachariah R, Manzi M, Pasulani O, Misindi D, Mwagomba B, et al. Patient retention and attrition on antiretroviral treatment at district level in rural Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103(6):594–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McGuire M, Pinoges L, Kanapathipillai R, et al. Treatment initiation, program attrition and patient treatment outcomes associated with scale-up and decentralization of HIV care in rural Malawi. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e38044.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Odafe S, Torpey K, Khamofu H, Ogbanufe O, Oladele EA, Kuti O, et al. The pattern of attrition from an antiretroviral treatment program in Nigeria. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51254.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.•
    Sanne I, Orrell C, Fox MP, Conradie F, Ive P, Zeinecker J, et al. Nurse versus doctor management of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (CIPRA-SA): a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9734):33–40. High-quality randomized trial assessing task-shifting as a strategy for the management of stable HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Selke HM, Kimaiyo S, Sidle JE, Vedanthan R, Tierney WM, Shen C, et al. Task-shifting of antiretroviral delivery from health care workers to persons living with HIV/AIDS: clinical outcomes of a community-based program in Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic. 2010;55(4):483–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Shumbusho F, van Griensven J, Lowrance D, Turate I, Weaver MA, Price J, et al. Task shifting for scale-up of HIV care: evaluation of nurse-centered antiretroviral treatment at rural health centers in Rwanda. PLoS Med. 2009;6(10):e1000163.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Torpey KE, Kabaso ME, Mutale LN, Kamanga MK, Mwango AJ, Simpungwe J, et al. Adherence support workers: a way to address human resource constraints in antiretroviral treatment programs in the public health setting in Zambia. PLoS One. 2008;3(5):e2204.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Geng EH, Nash D, Kambugu A, Zhang Y, Braitstein P, Christopoulos KA, et al. Retention in care among HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings: emerging insights and new directions. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7(4):234–44.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pfeiffer J, Montoya P, Baptista AJ, Karagianis M, Pugas Mde M, Micek M, et al. Integration of HIV/AIDS services into African primary health care: lessons learned for health system strengthening in Mozambique—a case study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13:3.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Etienne M, Burrows L, Osotimehin B, Macharia T, Hossain B, Redfield RR, et al. Situational analysis of varying models of adherence support and loss to follow up rates; findings from 27 treatment facilities in eight resource limited countries. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15 Suppl 1:76–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lamb MR, El-Sadr WM, Geng E, Nash D. Association of adherence support and outreach services with total attrition, loss to follow-up, and death among ART patients in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38443.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Buchacz KA, Parisi MK, Yoshida M, Antunez E, Delgado V, Moss NJ. Using HIV surveillance registry data to re-link patients to care: the RSVP project in San Francisco. Poster presented at: 21st Conference for Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections March 3-6; Boston, MA, Abstract 978.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dombrowski J, Hughes JP, Castel AD, Brady KA, Buskin S, Bennett A, et al. A surveillance-based risk-scoring tool to prioritize cases for HIV care re-linkage efforts. Poster presented at: 21st Conference for Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2014 March 3-6; Boston, MA. Abstract 982.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wispelwey E, Gordy A, Schaefer K, Dillingham R, Ingersoll K. Initiation of a retention in care (RiC) program in a semi-rural clinic in the Southeastern United States. Poster presented at: 8th International Conference on HIV Treatment and Prevention Adherence 2013 June 2-4; Miami, FL. Abstract 208.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Carda-Auten J, Wohl D, Golin C, Groves J, White BL, Pence B, et al. Cell phones to augment study visit retention for HIV+ individuals recently released from prison participating in the imPACT study. Poster presented at: 8th International Conference on Treatment and Prevention Adherence 2013 June 2–4 Miami, FL. Abstract 237.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Watkins K, Grimes R, Yang B, Mcneese M, Wolverton, M. Innovative approaches for identifying out-of-care persons for re-linkage to care. Poster presented at: 9th International Conference for Treatment and Prevention Adherence 2014 June 8-10 Miami, FL. Abstract 300.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Keller J, Schafer K, Cox MB, Heine A, Sena A, Wilkin A, et al. Bridging the gaps: the use of health information technology and bridge counseling to improve retention in care in North Carolina. Oral presentation at: 9th International Conference on Treatment and Prevention Adherence 2014 June 8-10 Miami, FL. Abstract 322.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ostermann J, Whetten K, Reddy E, Pence B, Weinhold A, Itemba D, et al. Treatment retention and care transitions during and after the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in Northern Tanzania. AIDS Care. 2014;26(11):1352–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ostermann J, Njau B, Brown DS, Mühlbacher A, Thielman, N. Heterogeneous HIV testing preferences in an urban setting in Tanzania: results from a discrete choice experiment. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Lance Okeke
    • 1
    • 4
  • Jan Ostermann
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Nathan M. Thielman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Duke Global Health InstituteDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  3. 3.Duke UniversityDurhamUSA
  4. 4.DurhamUSA
  5. 5.DurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations