HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the Modern Antiviral Treatment Era: Prevalence, Characteristics, Biomarkers, and Effects of Treatment
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The introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly reduced the mortality secondary to opportunistic infections in HIV patients by restoring the immune system. In the central nervous system (CNS), there has also been benefit with a marked reduction of HIV associated dementia. However, the milder forms of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and mild neurocognitive disorder, remain prevalent in the cART era. In this article, we will discuss how cART interacts with HAND in terms of clinical characteristics and biomarkers. We will then review the outcomes of recent clinical studies focused on the CNS penetrating antiretroviral regimens and some novel therapeutic approaches.
KeywordsHIV cART Cognitive impairment HAND CPE CNS
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Phillip Chan and Bruce J. Brew declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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