Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 317–324 | Cite as

HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the Modern Antiviral Treatment Era: Prevalence, Characteristics, Biomarkers, and Effects of Treatment

Central Nervous System and Cognition (I Grant, Section Editor)


The introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly reduced the mortality secondary to opportunistic infections in HIV patients by restoring the immune system. In the central nervous system (CNS), there has also been benefit with a marked reduction of HIV associated dementia. However, the milder forms of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and mild neurocognitive disorder, remain prevalent in the cART era. In this article, we will discuss how cART interacts with HAND in terms of clinical characteristics and biomarkers. We will then review the outcomes of recent clinical studies focused on the CNS penetrating antiretroviral regimens and some novel therapeutic approaches.


HIV cART Cognitive impairment HAND CPE CNS 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Phillip Chan and Bruce J. Brew declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of New South WalesSt Vincent’s Clinical SchoolSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Neurology & HIV DepartmentsSt. Vincent’s HospitalSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.St. Vincent’s Hospital Centre for Applied Medical ResearchSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Neurology team, Department of Internal MedicineQueen Elizabeth HospitalHong KongHong Kong
  5. 5.Neurology DepartmentSt Vincent’s HospitalDarlinghurstAustralia

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