Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 146–157 | Cite as

The Changing face of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Patricia J. García
  • Angela Bayer
  • César P Cárcamo
The Global Epidemic (S Vermund, Section Editor)


Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a region with similarities and important disparities. In recent years LAC has witnessed achievements, with HIV prevalence rates relatively stable for LA and decreasing for the Caribbean. However average values hide differences. General population HIV prevalence in LAC is 0.4 % on average. In the Caribbean there are fewer new HIV infections but HIV prevalence among adults exceeds 1 % in several countries. It is estimated that 31 % of adults living with HIV in LA and 52 % of adults in the Caribbean are women. Unprotected sex is the main route of HIV transmission in LAC. Men who have sex with men and transgender women are the populations with the highest prevalence (10.6 % and 17.7 % respectively); however other key populations such as female sex workers (4.9 %), drug users (range 1 %-49.7 % for intravenous drug users), prisoners and indigenous populations are also important. LAC has the highest anti-retroviral treatment coverage of any low- and middle-income region in the world, but women and children are less likely than men to receive treatment. There is an important pending agenda to address the gaps in information, prevention, and care for HIV in LAC.


Latin America The Caribbean Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) HIV HIV/AIDS HIV in LAC MSM Global epidemic 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Patricia J. García, Angela Bayer, and César P. Cárcamo declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patricia J. García
    • 1
    • 2
  • Angela Bayer
    • 1
    • 3
  • César P Cárcamo
    • 1
  1. 1.Epidemiology, STD, and HIV Unit, School of Public Health and AdministrationUniversidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaLima 31Peru
  2. 2.Department of Global HealthUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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