Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 35–44 | Cite as

Metabolic Consequences of HIV: Pathogenic Insights

HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment (AL Landay, Section Editor)


With the advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic medical condition that can be effectively managed like diabetes or hypertension. For HIV care providers, the focus of care for many patients has shifted from prevention of opportunistic infection and AIDS-related conditions to age-related cardiometabolic comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and frailty. Numerous reports have highlighted that these diseases are occurring at an earlier age among HIV-infected persons. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the role of HIV infection, ART, and other factors that may underlie the accelerated occurrence of these diseases. Herein, we review the epidemiology of the US HIV epidemic with regards to several metabolic comorbidities and address mechanisms that likely contribute to the current nature of HIV disease.


HIV AIDS Metabolism Inflammation Frailty Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Mitochondria Pathogenesis HIV pathogenesis Antiretroviral therapy (ART) Chronic medical condition 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Amanda L. Willig, and E. Turner Overton declare that they have no conflict of interest

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases. UAB Center for AIDS ResearchUniversity of Alabama School of MedicineBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious DiseasesUniversity of Alabama School of MedicineBirminghamUSA

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