Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 398–407 | Cite as

Intergenerational Sex as a Risk Factor for HIV Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Scoping Review

  • Aranka Anema
  • Brandon D. L. Marshall
  • Benjamin Stevenson
  • Jasmine Gurm
  • Gabriela Montaner
  • Will Small
  • Eric A. Roth
  • Viviane D. Lima
  • Julio S. G. Montaner
  • David Moore
  • Robert S. Hogg
Behavioral Aspects of HIV Management (RJ DiClemente and JL Brown, Section Editors)


An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. We applied a scoping review methodology to explore the relationships between age mixing, HIV risk behavior, and HIV seroconversion among YMSM. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: childhood maltreatment, coming of age and sexual identity, and substance use (individual-level factors); family and social support, partner characteristics, intimate partner violence, connectedness to gay community (micro-system factors); and race/ethnicity, economic disparity, and use of the Internet (meso-system factors). These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population.


Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) HIV seroconversion HIV risk Intergenerational sex Age mixing 



Drs. Robert S. Hogg and David Moore are supported by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) (R01-DA031055-01A1) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (107544). Dr. Julio S.G. Montaner is supported by the British Columbia Ministry of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) (DP1-DA026182) and CIHR. Dr. Montaner has received financial support from the International AIDS Society, United Nations AIDS Program, World Health Organization, National Institutes of Health Research-Office of AIDS Research, National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases, and the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPfAR). Dr. Brandon D.L. Marshall is supported by a Richard B. Salomon Award from Brown University. Dr. Viviane D. Lima is supported by NIDA (R03DA033851), CIHR (286475), a career award from the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research and a New Investigator award from CIHR.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Brandon D.L. Marshall is a consultant for British Columbia Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, has received honoraria from Columbia University and has had travel/accommodations expenses covered or reimbursed from Brown University.

Benjamin Stevenson received payment for manuscript preparation from BC Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDS.

Jasmine Gurm received payment for manuscript preparation from BC Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDS.

Aranka Anema, Gabriela Montaner, Will Small, Eric A. Roth, Viviane D. Lima, Julio S.G. Montaner, David Moore, and Robert S. Hogg declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aranka Anema
    • 1
  • Brandon D. L. Marshall
    • 2
  • Benjamin Stevenson
    • 1
  • Jasmine Gurm
    • 1
  • Gabriela Montaner
    • 1
  • Will Small
    • 1
    • 3
  • Eric A. Roth
    • 4
  • Viviane D. Lima
    • 1
    • 5
  • Julio S. G. Montaner
    • 1
    • 5
  • David Moore
    • 1
    • 5
  • Robert S. Hogg
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.British Columbia Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDSSt. Paul’s HospitalVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyBrown University School of Public HealthProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Faculty of Health SciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  4. 4.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Experimental Medicine Program, Department of MedicineGordon and Leslie Diamond Health Care CenterVancouverCanada

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