Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 283–293 | Cite as

Oral Health Considerations in HIV-Infected Children

  • Francisco J. Ramos-Gomez
  • Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
Co-infections (MA Jacobson, Section Editor)


Children with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher probability of hard and soft oral tissue diseases because of their compromised immune systems and socioeconomic factors such as poor access to medical and dental care and limited availability of fluoridated water or toothpaste. To improve health outcomes and help monitor the progression of HIV, a preventive, child-specific oral health protocol for children with HIV that is easy to use and appropriate for all different resource settings should be established. Further, both medical and dental health practitioners should incorporate such a protocol into their care routine for HIV-infected children. Using proactive oral health risk assessments complemented by scheduled follow-up visits based on individual risk determination can prevent opportunistic infection, track the HIV disease trajectory, and monitor the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) while improving the quality of life and longevity of children living with HIV.


Pediatrics Oral health HIV Oral manifestations Co-infections HIV-infected children Early childhood caries (ECC) Caries management by risk assessment (CAMBRA) 



The authors wish to recognize and thank Eric C. Chen, Eric Lan, Rebecca Pizzitola, and Debra L. Tom for their research, technical writing and editorial assistance.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Franciso J. Ramos-Gomez declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco J. Ramos-Gomez
    • 1
  • Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
    • 2
  1. 1.UCLA School of DentistryLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Obafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria

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