Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 385–393 | Cite as

Current Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors and Crack Cocaine Use among HIV-Infected Individuals

  • Wendee M. Wechsberg
  • Carol Golin
  • Nabila El-Bassel
  • Jessica Hopkins
  • William Zule
Behavioral Aspects of HIV Management (RJ DiClemente and JL Brown, Section Editors)


The dual global epidemics of crack cocaine use and HIV have resulted in a large number of people living with HIV who use crack cocaine, many of whom continue to engage in unprotected sex. Crack use also increases the rate of HIV progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for effective interventions to decrease crack use and unprotected sex and to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in this population. This article reviews the recent published literature on interventions for reducing crack use and unprotected sex among people living with HIV. Only a few intervention outcome studies targeting exclusively HIV positive crack cocaine users were identified, whereas other studies used a mixed sample. Some interventions focused on reducing crack use and several focused on reducing sex-risk behaviors. Consequently, there is a critical need for efficacious interventions that address crack use, risky sex and ART adherence among people living with HIV.


HIV-positive crack users Interventions Outcomes Substance abuse Sexual risk Behavioral aspects of HIV management Antiretroviral therapy Sexual risk behaviors 


Papers of particular interest, published recently have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendee M. Wechsberg
    • 1
  • Carol Golin
    • 2
  • Nabila El-Bassel
    • 3
  • Jessica Hopkins
    • 1
  • William Zule
    • 1
  1. 1.Substance Abuse, Treatment, Evaluations and Interventions ProgramRTI InternationalResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Columbia University School of Social WorkNew YorkUSA

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