Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 101–110 | Cite as

Should We Treat Acute HIV Infection?

  • Meagan O’Brien
  • Martin MarkowitzEmail author
Antiretroviral Therapies (A Pozniak, Section Editor)


Critical advances in the early diagnosis of HIV now allow for treatment opportunities during acute infection. It remains unclear whether treatment of acute HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy improves long-term clinical outcomes for the individual and current guidelines are not definitive in recommending therapy at this stage of infection. However, treatment of acute HIV infection may have short-term benefit on viral set point when compared to delayed therapy as well as reducing the risk of transmission to others. Herein we review the immunological and clinical literature to discuss whether we should treat acute HIV infection, both from the perspective of the individual HIV-infected patient and from the public health perspective. As transmission of drug-resistant HIV variants are of concern, we also review recent clinical trial data to provide recommendations for which specific antiretroviral treatment regimens should be considered for the treatment of acute HIV infection.


HIV Antiretroviral therapy Clinical trials Observational studies Viral load set point Viral reservoir Drug-resistant HIV transmission 



No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Cancer InstituteNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, an affiliate of the Rockefeller UniversityNew YorkUSA

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