Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 44–51 | Cite as

Human Microbiome and HIV/AIDS

  • Deepak Saxena
  • Yihong Li
  • Liying Yang
  • Zhiheng Pei
  • Michael Poles
  • William R. Abrams
  • Daniel Malamud
The Science of HIV (AL Landay, Section Editor)


Understanding of the human microbiome continues to grow rapidly; however, reports on changes in the microbiome after HIV infection are still limited. This review surveys the progress made in methodology associated with microbiome studies and highlights the remaining challenges to this field. Studies have shown that commensal oral, gut, vaginal, and penile bacteria are vital to the health of the human immune system. Our studies on crosstalk among oral and gastrointestinal soluble innate factors, HIV, and microbes indicated that the oral and gut microbiome was altered in the HIV-positive samples compared to the negative controls. The importance of understanding the bacterial component of HIV/AIDS, and likelihood of “crosstalk” between viral and bacterial pathogens, will help in understanding the role of the microbiome in HIV-infected individuals and facilitate identification of novel antiretroviral factors for use as novel diagnostics, microbicides, or therapeutics against HIV infection.


HIV Oral microbiome Oral manifestation Innate immunity 454 pyrosequencing Gut microbiome Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Crosstalk 



The study was supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) grants U19-DE018385, RO3-DE019178, RO1-DE020891, and UH3CA140233 from Human Microbiome Project of the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Initiative and National Cancer Institute. We acknowledge the advice and support of our Program Directors at NIDCR for U19-DE018385: Dr. Lillian Shum and Dr. Isaac R. Rodriguez-Chavez.


No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepak Saxena
    • 1
  • Yihong Li
    • 1
  • Liying Yang
    • 2
  • Zhiheng Pei
    • 2
  • Michael Poles
    • 3
  • William R. Abrams
    • 1
  • Daniel Malamud
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial BiologyNew York University College of DentistryNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyNew York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Departments of MedicineNew York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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