Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 142–152

Cancer Screening in Patients Infected with HIV

  • Keith Sigel
  • Robert Dubrow
  • Michael Silverberg
  • Kristina Crothers
  • Scott Braithwaite
  • Amy Justice


Non–AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Cancer screening Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) Combination antiretroviral therapy(cART) Cervical cancer Anal cancer Colorectal cancer Prostate cancer Breast cancer Hepatocellular cancer Lung cancer Pap testing Payoff time Life-expectancy High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) Anal cytology Digital rectal examination (DRE) Mammography Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) Ultrasonography Colonoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Low-dose CT 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith Sigel
    • 1
  • Robert Dubrow
    • 2
  • Michael Silverberg
    • 3
  • Kristina Crothers
    • 4
  • Scott Braithwaite
    • 5
  • Amy Justice
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Infectious DiseasesMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Yale School of Public HealthYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Kaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaDivision of ResearchOaklandUSA
  4. 4.University of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  5. 5.New York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.VA Connecticut Healthcare System and Yale University Schools of Medicine and Public HealthNew HavenUSA

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