Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 4–10 | Cite as

Early Immune Senescence in HIV Disease

Article

Abstract

Non-AIDS-defining co-morbidities that occur despite viral suppression and immune reconstitution using antiretroviral therapy depict early aging process in HIV-infected individuals. During aging, a reduction in T-cell renewal, together with a progressive enrichment of terminally differentiated T cells, translates into a general decline of the immune system, gradually leading to immunosenescence. Inflammation is a hallmark of age-associated comorbidities, and immune activation is a hallmark of HIV disease. Constant stimulation of the immune system by HIV or due to co-infections activates the innate and adaptive immune system, resulting in release of mediators of inflammation. Immune activation coupled with lack of anti-inflammatory responses likely results in accelerated aging in HIV disease. Dysfunctional thymic output, along with HIV-mediated disruption of the gastrointestinal barrier leading to microbial translocation, contributes to the circulating antigenic load driving early senescence in HIV disease.

Keywords

Senescene Activation Inflammation Microbial translocation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Jules Levin, Executive Director and Founder, NATAP for driving our attention to important work done and to be done on aging and HIV research.

Disclosure

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Immunology/MicrobiologyRush University Medical CenterChicagoUSA

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