Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 94–105 | Cite as

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  • Pietro Merli
  • Mattia Algeri
  • Francesca Del Bufalo
  • Franco LocatelliEmail author
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias (K Ballen and M Keng, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias


Purpose of Review

The remarkable improvement in the prognosis of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been mainly achieved through the administration of risk-adapted therapy, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This paper reviews the current indications to HSCT in ALL children, as well as the type of donor and conditioning regimens commonly used. Finally, it will focus on future challenges in immunotherapy.

Recent Findings

As our comprehension of disease-specific risk factors improves, indications to HSCT continue to evolve. Future studies will answer the year-old question on the best conditioning regimen to be used in this setting, while a recent randomized controlled study fixed the optimal anti-thymocyte globulin dose in unrelated donor HSCT.


HSCT, the oldest immunotherapy used in clinical practice, still represents the gold standard consolidation treatment for a number of pediatric patients with high-risk/relapsed ALL. New immunotherapies hold the promise of further improving outcomes in this setting.


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Children Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Relapsed/refractory ALL 



The authors would like to thank P.D.S. and F.M. for the critical revision of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pietro Merli
    • 1
  • Mattia Algeri
    • 1
  • Francesca Del Bufalo
    • 1
  • Franco Locatelli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Hematology and OncologyBambino Gesù Children’s HospitalRomeItaly
  2. 2.Sapienza University of RomeRomeItaly

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