Minimal/Measurable Residual Disease Detection in Acute Leukemias by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry
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Purpose of Review
Minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD) detected by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) is an independent prognostic indicator in acute leukemia. However, the predictive value of MFC MRD is affected by technical challenges, interpretive complexities, and inadequate standardization, particularly in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we critically review the methodological principles of the MFC MRD assay and discuss clinical implications of MRD.
Key components of MFC MRD assays to be discussed include the principles of MFC, panel selection, analysis approaches, level of quantifiable MRD and calculation, reporting, and areas of improvements. Key components of clinical implications include context-dependent detection threshold and the integral role of MRD assessment by MFC in the era of ever-expanding molecular testing.
With advancements in technology and standardization, MFC along with molecular assays will continue to play an important role in MRD assessment to evaluate treatment response and risk stratification.
KeywordsAcute myeloid leukemia Lymphoblastic leukemia Minimal residual disease detection Measurable residual disease detection Immunophenotype Multiparameter flow cytometry Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction Next-generation sequencing
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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