Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 370–378 | Cite as

Febrile Neutropenia in Hematologic Malignancies

  • Michael K. Keng
  • Mikkael A. SekeresEmail author
Myelodysplastic Syndromes (M Sekeres, Section Editor)


Febrile neutropenia (FN) can occur at any time during the course of a malignancy, especially hematologic malignancies, from diagnosis to end-stage disease. The majority of FN episodes are typically confined to the period of initial diagnosis and active treatment. Because of suppressed inflammatory responses, fever is often the sole sign of infection. As FN is a true medical emergency, prompt identification of and intervention in FN can prolong survival and improve quality of life. This article reviews FN in the setting of hematologic malignancies, specifically myelodysplastic syndromes and acute leukemias, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, diagnostic approach, categories of risk/risk assessment, management in patients at low and high risk, and prophylaxis of infections.


Febrile neutropenia Neutropenic fever Neutropenia Fever Antibiotic prophylaxis Empiric Antibiotics Cancer Hematologic malignancies 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

M. Keng: none; M. Sekeres: none.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Financial Disclosures

None for all authors.




Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Leukemia ProgramClevelandUSA

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