Prevention of Cardiotoxicities With Traditional and Novel Chemotherapeutic Agents
Purpose of Review
This review will discuss strategies to prevent cardiotoxicity associated with chemotherapeutics. Forty years ago, investigators identified dose-dependent cardiotoxicity related to anthracycline-based regimens. Over recent decades, the development of more selective, mechanism-based chemotherapeutics has been associated with both on-target and off-target adverse cardiovascular sequelae.
Strategies to prevent or attenuate cardiotoxicities include limitation of anthracycline dose, appropriate patient selection, referral/access to cardio-oncology programs, early recognition of cardiac side effects, active cardio-surveillance, cardio-protective medical therapy, treatment-specific concerns, and follow-up. The importance of accurate diagnosis of cardiotoxicity is important as false-positive testing may result in inappropriate holding or stopping potentially life-saving chemotherapy. Data to support use of cardio-protective medical therapy to prevent chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity is modest at best, limited by marginal effect size, small patient numbers, and short follow-up.
The rapid growth in cardio-oncology clinics may facilitate larger multi-center randomized controlled trials in this area.
KeywordsChemotherapy Cardiotoxicity Prevention Anthracycline Cardiomyopathy Heart failure Novel chemotherapeutics
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance
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