Novel Biomarkers for the Risk Stratification of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
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Purpose of Review
The use of biomarkers in heart failure (HF) is a rapidly changing field. The purpose of this review is to assess the current evidence of the use of biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Despite differences in pathophysiology between HF with reduced ejection fraction and HFpEF, traditional HF biomarkers such as brain natriuretic peptide and troponin retain prognostic value in most HFpEF-specific populations. Biomarkers of key pathophysiologic components of HFpEF, such as myocardial fibrosis, remodeling, and systemic inflammation are also valuable prognostic markers.
Further investigation into HF biomarkers may identify significant therapeutic targets for the treatment of HFpEF.
KeywordsHeart failure Biomarkers Prognosis Risk stratification
The authors would like to thank Erin Campbell, MS, for her editorial contributions to this manuscript. Ms. Campbell did not receive compensation for her contributions, apart from her employment at the institution where this study was conducted.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This manuscript was funded internally by the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC.
Conflict of Interest
Jeremy Cypen and Tariq Ahmad declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Adam D. DeVore reports grants from the American Heart Association, Amgen, Novartis, as well as consulting with Novartis.
Jeffrey M. Testani reports grants and personal fees from Otsuka, personal fees from Novartis, grants and personal fees from Sequana Medical, grants from Medtronic, grants and personal fees from Sanofi, grants from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants from the National Institutes of Health, grants from Corvidia medical, personal fees from GE Healthcare, personal fees from Cardionomic, grants and personal fees from The Foundry, grants from the US Food and Drug Administration, personal fees from Relypsa, and grants from Abbott. In addition, Dr. Testani has a patent Joint with Yale and Corvidia licensed.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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