Acute Heart Failure: Patient Characteristics and Pathophysiology
The number of hospitalizations for acute heart failure (HF) continues to increase and it remains the most common discharge diagnosis among Medicare beneficiaries. Prognosis after hospitalization for HF is poor, with high in-hospital mortality and even higher post-discharge mortality and rehospitalization rates. It is a complex clinical syndrome that varies widely with respect to clinical presentation and underlying pathophysiology. This paper reviews what is documented in the literature regarding the known pathophysiologic mechanisms reported in patients hospitalized for HF.
KeywordsHeart failure Hospitalization Acute Pathophysiology Endothelial function
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Conflict of Interest
Catherine N. Marti, Vasiliki V. Georgiopoulou, and Andreas P. Kalogeropoulos declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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