Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment for Noncardiac Surgery in Patients with Heart Failure
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- Upshaw, J. & Kiernan, M.S. Curr Heart Fail Rep (2013) 10: 147. doi:10.1007/s11897-013-0136-x
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The aging population and an epidemic of heart failure have led to an increasing volume of noncardiac surgical procedures being performed in patients with heart failure. Knowledge pertaining to perioperative risk stratification and management among this diverse and complex cohort of patients has therefore become increasingly important. Most available data regarding the management of patients with heart disease undergoing noncardiac surgery is specific to patients with ischemic heart disease, and focuses on the prevention of ischemia and its subsequent complications. This review instead specifically explores the available data regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of the surgical patient with heart failure, with a focus on risk stratification and perioperative management.