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Current Heart Failure Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 147–153 | Cite as

Pathophysiology and Treatment Options for Cardiac Anorexia

  • Marat Fudim
  • Gabriel Wagman
  • Rebecca Altschul
  • Evin Yucel
  • Michelle Bloom
  • Timothy J. Vittorio
Article

Abstract

The anorexia–cachexia syndrome (ACS) occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, AIDS, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in addition to chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Comparable to other chronic states, the ACS complicates CHF and impacts its prognosis; however, the available treatment options for this syndrome remain unsatisfactory. This review article focuses on the complex pathophysiology of cardiac anorexia. We focus on the recent data demonstrating the relationships between central appetite-regulating structures, inflammatory processes, and neurohormonal activation, and their respective roles in the development of anorexia. We then describe the different treatment options and discuss some future prospects for the management for cardiac anorexia.

Keywords

Anorexia Cachexia Neurohormonal Chronic heart failure 

Notes

Disclosures

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marat Fudim
    • 1
  • Gabriel Wagman
    • 2
  • Rebecca Altschul
    • 3
  • Evin Yucel
    • 4
  • Michelle Bloom
    • 2
  • Timothy J. Vittorio
    • 2
  1. 1.Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular InstituteMount Sinai Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineState University of New York at BrooklynBrooklynUSA

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