Art as a Means to Disrupt Routine Use of Space
This paper examines the publicly visible aspects of counter-terrorism activity in pedestrian spaces as mechanisms of disruption. We discuss the objectives of counter-terrorism in terms of disruption of routine for both hostile actors and general users of public spaces, categorising the desired effects as 1) triangulation of attention; 2) creation of unexpected performance; and 3) choreographing of crowd flow. We review the potential effects of these existing forms of disruption used in counter-terrorism. We then present a palette of art, advertising, architecture, and entertainment projects that offer examples of the same disruption effects of triangulation, performance and flow. We conclude by reviewing the existing support for public art in counter-terrorism policy, and build on the argument for art as an important alternative to authority. We suggest that while advocates of authority-based disruption might regard the playfulness of some art as a weakness, the unexpectedness it offers is perhaps a key strength.
Keywordsart terrorism counterterrorism disruption authority
This research is conducted as part of the ‘Shades of Grey – Towards a Science of Interventions for Eliciting and Detecting Notable Behaviors’ project (EPSRC reference: EP/H02302X/1). We are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for providing thought-provoking and invaluable feedback on earlier drafts of this paper.
- Adriaansens A, Brouwer J (2002) Alien relationships with public space. In: Arjen M, Brouwer J (eds) Transurbanism. Netherlands Architecture Institute [NAi], Rotterdam, pp 139–160Google Scholar
- Bateson JEG, Hui MKM (1987) A model for crowding in the service experience: empirical findings. In: The services challenge: Integrating for Competitive Advantage. American Marketing Association, Chicago, pp 85–89Google Scholar
- Bhabha HK (1998). Anish Kapoor: Making Emptiness. In Bhaba, H.K. and Tazzi, P.L. (eds) Anish Kapoor. Hayward Gallery, London, pp 11–41.Google Scholar
- Braithwaite, A. (2013). The logic of public fear in terrorism and counterterrorism. Journal of Police & Criminal Psychology, in press.Google Scholar
- Bullivant, L. (2005). Jason Bruges: Light and Space Explorer. Architectural Design 75(1):79–81.Google Scholar
- Chebat, J. C., Gélinas-Chebat, C., Vaninski, A., and Filiatrault, P. (1995). The impact of mood on time perception, memorization, and acceptance of waiting. Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs 121(4):411–424Google Scholar
- Clarke, R. V. (1997). Introduction. In Clarke, R.V. (ed) Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies 2nd Edition. Harrow and Heston, New York, pp 1–47.Google Scholar
- City of London Police (2013) Project Griffin Mission. Retrieved from http://www.projectgriffin.org.uk/index.php/mission Accessed 10 Jun 2013.
- Cornish D (1994) The procedural analysis of offending and its relevance for situational prevention. Crime prevention studies 3:151–196Google Scholar
- Department of Homeland Security. (2010). “If You See Something, Say Something” Campaign. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/if-you-see-something-say-something-campaign. Accesses 10 Jun 2013.
- Diller, E., and Scofidio, R. (2000). Brasserie. Retrieved from http://www.dsrny.com/. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Donath, J. (2008). Technological interventions in everyday interaction. In Act/React catalog. Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, MN.Google Scholar
- Edwards, R. (2010, January 15). Heathrow staff given body language training to spot suspected terrorists. Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/travelnews/6990006/Heathrow-in-security-alert-as-two-men-arrested-on-flight.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Eliasson, O. (2003). The Weather Project. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/eliasson/default.htm. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Eliasson O (2008) San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Exhibition. Leonardo Electronic Almanac 16(1):2–5Google Scholar
- Gaver, W. W., Beaver, J., and Benford, S. (2003). Ambiguity as a resource for design. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, pp. 233–240.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. (1966). Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings. Free Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Hillier B, Sahbaz O (2009) Crime and urban design: An evidence-based approach. In: Cooper R, Evans G, Boyko C (eds) Designing Sustainable Cities. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, pp 163–186Google Scholar
- Home Office (2012). Protecting Crowded Places: Design and Technical Issues. Home Office. Retrieved from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/counter-terrorism/crowded-places/design-tech-issues?view=Binary. (accessed 22/03/13).
- Hui, M. K., and Bateson, J. E. G. (1991). Perceived control and the effects of crowding and consumer choice on the service experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(2:)174–184Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. Random House, New York.Google Scholar
- Jason Bruges Architects. (2010). Shortcut. Retrieved from http://www.jasonbruges.com/projects/uk-projects/shortcut. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Jerram, L. (2008). Play Me, I’m Yours. Retrieved from http://www.lukejerram.com/projects/play_me_im_yours. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Kapoor, A. (2010). Turning the world upside down. Retrieved from http://www.serpentinegallery.org/2010/03/anish_kapoor.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Levin, T. Y., Frohne, U., Weibel, P., and Karlsruhe, Z. für K. und M. (Eds). (2002). Ctrl [space]: rhetorics of surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother. ZKM, Center for Art and Media, Karlsruhe, Germany, and MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
- Lozano-Hemmer, R. (2001). Body Movies. Retrieved from http://www.lozano-hemmer.com/body_movies.php. (accessed 22/03/13).
- Mehrabian, A., and Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
- Minton A (2009) Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty-First Century City. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
- National Counter-terrorism Security Office [NaCTSO]. (2011). Counter-terrorism Protective Security Advice for Stadia and Arenas. Retrieved from https://vsat.nactso.gov.uk/SiteCollectionDocuments/AreasOfRisk/Stadia%20and%20Arenas%202011.pdf. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Newman O (1972) Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
- O’Shea, C. (2009). Hand from Above. Retrieved from http://www.chrisoshea.org/hand-from-above. (accessed 22/03/13).
- Piano stairs (2009). DDB Stockholm. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lXh2n0aPyw. (accessed 22/03/13).
- Puwar, N. (2004). Space invaders: Race, gender and bodies out of place. Berg Publishers, London.Google Scholar
- Rozin, Daniel. (1999). Wooden Mirror. Retrieved from http://www.smoothware.com/danny/woodenmirror.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Russell, J. S., Bershad, D., Felicella, E., Kelly, M., and Kennedy, E. (2002). Designing for Security: Using Art and Design to Improve Security. Design Trust for Public Space Art Commission of the City of New York. Retrieved from http://www.designtrust.org/publications/publication_97security.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Sester, M. (2003). ACCESS. Retrieved from http://www.accessproject.net/index.html. Accessed 10 Jun 2013.
- Shaw, P. (1992). Percent for Art: a review. Newcastle: Artic Press/Arts Council of Great Britain, London.Google Scholar
- Snibbe, S. S., and Raffle, H. S. (2009). Social immersive media: pursuing best practices for multi-user interactive camera/projector exhibits. Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM 2009 pp. 1447–1456.Google Scholar
- Stratfor. (2010). How to Look for Trouble: A Stratfor Guide to Protective Intelligence. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.Google Scholar
- Trafalgar Square green with turf. (2007, May 24). BBC. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/6687089.stm. Accessed 22 Mar 20113.
- Triggs T, McAndrew C (2009) Transforming policy practice in transport: Is there a space for communication design? In: Inclusive Design into Innovation: Transforming Practice in Design, Research and Business. Royal College of Art, London, Presented at the Include 2009Google Scholar
- Whyte, W. H. (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Project for Public Spaces, New York.Google Scholar
- Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the Center. Doubleday, New York.Google Scholar
- Woolard, C. (2006). Subway Swing. Retrieved from http://carolinewoolard.blogspot.com/2006/10/swing-on-subway.html. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.
- Worthington, P. (2005). Shadow Monsters. Retrieved from http://www.worthersoriginal.com/viki/. Accessed 22 Mar 2013.