Esophageal Perforations: An Endoscopic Approach to Management
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Purpose of Review
Esophageal perforations are associated with high morbidity and mortality. As opposed to surgical repair, endoscopic closure techniques have emerged over the years as a more minimally invasive approach for management. Our goal is to discuss different modalities for closure.
Through-the-scope clips (TTSCs), over-the-scope clips (OTSCs), and esophageal stent placement are well known options for closure. We will also discuss the more recent technique of endoscopic suturing for closure of larger defects as well as prevention of esophageal stent migration. For mediastinal collections associated with perforations, a more novel endoluminal vacuum therapy (EVT) for drainage may be an option.
Overall, there are several different endoscopic options that can tailored to the specific features of an esophageal perforation. This review will discuss various techniques with which a gastroenterologist or thoracic surgeon should be familiar.
KeywordsEsophagus Perforation Endoscopic management Over-the-scope clip Esophageal stent Endoscopic suturing
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Shelly Gurwara and Steven Clayton declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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