Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumors (Carcinoids)
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Purpose of Review
The diagnosis of gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is being made with increased frequency likely as a result of more upper endoscopies being done for unrelated reasons. It is therefore vital that gastroenterologists become familiar with the basic work-up and management of patients found to have these tumors. This review describes the classification, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment options of the different gastric NETs.
In addition to the three traditional subtypes of gastric NETs, additional cases associated with achlorhydria and appropriate hypergastrinemia may exist. The management of gastric NETs between 1 and 2 cm in size remains controversial and needs to be individualized.
Gastric NETs are uncommon but are now diagnosed more frequently. This review highlights the role of hypergastrinemia in their development and the controversies around their management.
KeywordsNeuroendocrine tumor (NET) Gastric carcinoid Hypergastrinemia Netazepide
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
David Metz reports personal fees from Ipsen, Novartis, Lexicon, and Takeda and grants from AAA and Lexicon and Emeritus chair of NANETS. Craig Gluckman has nothing to disclose.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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