Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumors (Carcinoids)

  • Craig R. Gluckman
  • David C. MetzEmail author
Stomach and Duodenum (J Pisegna and J Benhammou, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Stomach and Duodenum


Purpose of Review

The diagnosis of gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is being made with increased frequency likely as a result of more upper endoscopies being done for unrelated reasons. It is therefore vital that gastroenterologists become familiar with the basic work-up and management of patients found to have these tumors. This review describes the classification, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment options of the different gastric NETs.

Recent Findings

In addition to the three traditional subtypes of gastric NETs, additional cases associated with achlorhydria and appropriate hypergastrinemia may exist. The management of gastric NETs between 1 and 2 cm in size remains controversial and needs to be individualized.


Gastric NETs are uncommon but are now diagnosed more frequently. This review highlights the role of hypergastrinemia in their development and the controversies around their management.


Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) Gastric carcinoid Hypergastrinemia Netazepide 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

David Metz reports personal fees from Ipsen, Novartis, Lexicon, and Takeda and grants from AAA and Lexicon and Emeritus chair of NANETS. Craig Gluckman has nothing to disclose.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyHospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

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