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Cellular Origins of Barrett’s Esophagus: the Search Continues

  • Horace Rhee
  • David H. Wang
Esophagus (J Clarke and N Ahuja, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Esophagus

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The cellular origins of Barrett’s esophagus remain elusive. In this review, we discuss the potential cellular mechanisms behind squamous to columnar metaplasia as well as the limitations of these proposed mechanisms.

Recent Findings

Several theories have been proposed, including the reprogramming of native squamous cells, repopulation from submucosal glands, contributions from circulating bone marrow-derived cells, and direct extension of gastric cells. Most recent data support an innate progenitor cell unique to the squamocolumnar junction that can expand into metaplastic glands.

Summary

Active investigation to clarify each of these potential cells of origin is being pursued, but ultimately each could contribute to the pathogenesis of Barrett’s esophagus depending on the clinical context. Nonetheless, identifying cells of origin is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms behind Barrett’s esophagus and developing strategies to better treat (and possibly prevent) this increasingly significant premalignant disease.

Keywords

Barrett’s esophagus Metaplasia Cell of origin Squamocolumnar junction 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Division of Hematology and Oncology, Esophageal Diseases Center, Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterDallasUSA
  3. 3.Medical ServiceVA North Texas Health Care SystemDallasUSA

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