Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity

  • Maria Teresa Bardella
  • Luca Elli
  • Francesca Ferretti
Small Intestine (D Sachar, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Small Intestine


Purpose of review

A new syndrome responding to gluten-free diet and defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity entered the spectrum of gluten-related disorders, together with celiac disease and wheat allergy. However, its definition, prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and follow up are still controversial. The purpose of the review is to summarize the evidence and problems emerging from the current literature.

Recent findings

Direct implication of gluten in the onset of symptoms is often unproved as a low fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols diet or other components of cereals as wheat amylase trypsin inhibitor could be similarly involved. To date, no specific biomarkers or histological abnormalities confirm diagnosis, and only the self-reported response to gluten-free diet as well as a positive double blind placebo-gluten challenge characterizes these non-celiac, non-wheat allergic patients.


Critical revision of published studies can offer practical indications in approaching this clinical topic and useful suggestions to standardize scientific researches.


Non-celiac gluten sensitivity Celiac disease Gluten-free diet Double-blind placebo-controlled challenge Irritable bowel syndrome Wheat sensitivity 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Drs Bardella and Ferretti have no conflict of interest to declare.

Dr. Elli reports personal fees from Schär Institute, outside the submitted work

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Teresa Bardella
    • 1
    • 3
  • Luca Elli
    • 1
  • Francesca Ferretti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy UnitFondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical, Surgical and Transplant PhysiopathologyUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.MilanItaly

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